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102 terms

AP Psych

STUDY
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Empiricism
The view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourished through observation and experiment
Structuralism
Early psych that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Functionalism
Focuses on how mental and behavioral processes function, how they enable the organism to adopt survive and flourish
Humanistic
Emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people, uses personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
Theory
Explanation using an integrated set of principals that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
Hypothesis
Testable prediction, often implied by a theory
False Consensus Effect
Tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated
Dependent Variable
Not manipulatd but may change in response to manipulations of independent
Acetylcholine
A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
CNS
Brain and spinal cord
PNS
Sensory and motor neurons that connect CNS to rest of body
Sensory Neurons
Carry incoming info from sense receptors to CNS
Motor Neurons
Carry outgoing info from CNS to muscles and glands
Interneurons
CNS neurons that internally communiate and intervene b/t sensory inputs and motor outputs
Somatic
Controls body's skeletal muscles, part of PNS
Autonomic
controls glands and muscles, part of PNs
Sympathetic
Arouses body
Parasympathetic
Clams body
Brainstem
responsible for autonomic survival functions
medulla
base of brainstem, controls heart and breathing
Thalamus
Brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of brainstem, processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance
Glial Cells
Cells in nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons
Frontal Lobe
Speaking, muscle movements, making plans and judgments lobe
Parietal Lobe
Receives sensory input for touch and body position lobe
Occipital Lobe
Visual area lobe
Temporal Lobe
Auditory areas lobe
Motor Cortex
At the rear of frontal lobe controls voluntary mov'ts
Sensory Cortex
Area at front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and mov't sensations
Aphasia
Impairment of languauge
Broca's Area
Controls language expression, frontal lobe, left hemisphere
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception, involved in language comprehension and expression, left temporal lobe
Schema
Concept or framework that organizes info
Assimilation
Interpreting ones new experiences in terms of existing schemas
Accommodation
adapting ones current schemas to incorporate new info
Sensorimotor Stage
object permance
preoperational stage
language, egocentrism
concrete operation stage
conservation, logically thinking
Formal operation
abstract concepts
Bottom-up processing
analysis begins withsensory receptors and works up to brain
Top-Down processing
info processing guided by higher level mental processes drawing on expectations and experiences
Absolute Threshold
Minimum stimulation needed to detect stimulus 50% of time
Difference Threshold
Minimum difference b/t two stimuli required for detection fifty perscent of time also JND
Weber's Law
To be pereived as different two different stimuli they must differ by a constant minimum precentage rather than a constant amount
Rods
black and white receptors, peripheral and night vision
cones
color, daylight, fine detail receptors
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory
retina contain three diff color receptors, red, green, blue when stimulated in combo can produce any color
Opponent-Process Theory
Opposing retinal processes enable color vision, redgreen, yellowblue, whiteblack
Alpha Waves
Slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state
Delta Waves
Large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
Depressants
Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body funtions
Barbiturates
Drugs that depress CNS activity reduce anxiety but impair memory and judgement
Opiates
Depress neural activity and lesson pain and anxiety
Stimulants
Excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Associative Learning
Learning that certain events occur together
Behaviorism
View that psych should be objective, it studies behavior w/o reference to mental processes
Operant Conditioning
Skinner's box, rewards and punishements
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Hippocampus
Neural center, limbic system, helps process explicit memories for storage
Proactive Interference
Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info
Retroactive Interference
Disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old info
Telegraphic Speech
when a child speaks like a telegram using nouns verbs and omitting auxiliary words
Aptitude Test
Test designed to predict a person's future performence, the capacity to learn
Achievement Test
test designed to asses what a person has learned
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS
most widely used intelligence test, verbal and performance
Validity
extent to which a test meausres or predicts what it is supposed to
Drive Reduction Theory
The idea that a phsyiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy a need
Set Point
point at which someones weight is supposedly set
Sexual Response Cycle excitement plateau orgasm and resolution
four stages of sexual responding described by masters and johnson
James Lang Theory
Our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion arousing stimulit
Cannon Bard Theory
An emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers pysiological responses and subjective experience of emotion
Two Factor Theory
To experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively lable the arousal
Feel good do good phenomemon
tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Relative Deprivation
Perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
General Adaption Syndrome alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages
Psychophysiological illness
stress related physical illnesses
Id
unconscious psychic energy strives to satisfy basic drives
ego
conscious part of personality, mediates among id superego and reality
Superego
represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judement
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Psychosexual stages
reaction formation
psychoanalytical defense mechanism when the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impuleses into the opposites
Projection
people disguise their own threatening impulses by attrivuting them to others
rationalization
offers self justifying explanations in place of the real more thretening reasons for ones actions
displacement
shifts sexual or agressive impulses toward a more acceptable object or person
Collective unconscious
Carl Jung, shared resevoir of memory traces from species history
Thematic Apperception Test TAT
stories, pictures, personality projective test
Spotlight Effect
overestimating otheres noticing of our apperance performance and blunders
self serving bias
readiness to perceive oneself favorablly
Normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well learned tasks in presence of others
deindividuation
loss of self awareness and self restraing in group situation
group polarization
enhancement of groups prevailing inclinations through discussion
group think
mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony overrides realiztic alternatives
scapegoat theory
theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
frustration-agression principal
principal that frustration creates anger which can generate agression
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases linking of them
alturism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
social exchange theory
our social behavior is an exchange process, aim is to max benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm
expectation that ppl will help not hurt those who have helped them
social responsibiltity norm
expectation that ppl will help those dependant upon them
superordinate goals
shared gals that override difference among ppl and require there cooperation