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Chapter 2 Government
Terms in this set (102)
Articles of Confederation
a weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War
Charles A. Beard
published a book called An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution that argued that the better-off urban and commercial classes, especially those members who held the IOUs issued by the government to pay for the Revolutionary War, favored the new Constitution because they stood to benefit from it
powers shared by the national and state governments
not a single written document but rather a collection of laws, charters, and traditional understandings that proclaimed the liberties of British subjects
Meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
Declaration of Independence
traditional liberties to which they though they were entitled as British subjects
powers given to the national government alone
government authority shared by national and state governments
papers to help win ratification of the new Constitution in the New York state convention written by Alexander Hamilton
plan to have a popularly elected House based on state population and a state-selected Senate, with two members for each state
refused to attend the convention because he "smelled a rat in Philadelphia, tending towards monarchy" ; founder of the republican party
wrote the Declaration of Independence
english philosopher who viewed that natural rights are discoverable by reason; said that all men cherish and seek to protect their life, liberty, and property
said that liberty is safest in large republics; attempted to show how democratic government really works and what can make it work better
clear separation of powers among the carious branches of government, the directly elected governor could veto acts of the legislature, and judges served for life
unalienable rights = rights given by God
New Jersey Plan
proposal to create a weak national government
most radically democratic of the new state regimes; all power was given to one house legislature, the Assembly, the members of which annually for one year terms
powers given to the state government alone
separation of powers
constitutional authority is shared by three different branches of government
a 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
proposal to create a strong national government
a new provision in the Constitution that has been ratified by the states
an alliance of factions
the states are sovereign and the national government is allowed to do only that which the states permit
ex post facto law
a law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed
a group with a distinct political interest
used to help win ratification of the new Constitution in the New York state convention published by Alexander Hamilton and they were a series of articles defending and explaining the document in the New York City newspapers.
those who favor a stronger national government
the power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
an executive's ability to clock a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature
Madisonian view of human nature
thought that the self interest leads that leads people toward factionalism and tyranny might (if properly harnessed by appropriate constitutional arrangements) provide a source of unity and a guarantee of liberty
a government in which elected representatives make the decisions
a human right based on nature or God
writ of habeas corpus
an order to produce an arrested person before a judge
What was the relationship between the American Revolution and the concept of liberty?
It was a struggle over liberty and the protection of basic notion rights
What were these basic rights that the revolutionaries sought to protect?
Legal cases before independent charges. Free from quartering British troops. Trade without burdensome restrictions. No taxes voted by British Parliament representation
Why did a significant element of colonists see revolution as the only practical alternative to their present condition?
They lacked faith in the British Constitution. Remember the British Constitution was a collection of laws, charters and traditional understanding of basic human rights. They perceived that both the British Constitution and most politicians were corrupt.
The colonial thinkers are arguing for a notion of natural rights. What does this term mean?
It is a higher law ordained by God. It is discovered in nature and essential to human progress. It is an integral of what we have just because we are human.
What did John Dickinson think natural rights were?
are born with us; exist with us; and cannot be taken away from us by an human power
inalienable nature of rights
based on nature or Providence and not on the whims or preferences of people
How do views like natural rights allow for the acceptance of a revolution?
you have a reason to overthrow the government because they didn't have their own rights
what can be used to validate the idea that this was a struggle over rights that many people believed were inalienable?
Declaration of Independence
What were the revolutionary parts of the American Revolution?
real revolutionary part was their attitude of consent of the people and legislative branch should be in charge with more power
Why were the article of confederation ineffective?
Each state remained sovereign. The national government couldn't levy taxes or regulate commerce. Army was small and ineffective
what can you use to prove that the articles of confederation were ineffective?
shay's rebellion, penn constitution, oppressiveness of the legislature, no transportation in the South
one of the reasons the articles of confederation were ineffective was because of the oppressiveness of the legislature. what was that?
disenfranchised Quakers, persecuted conscious objectors to the war, ignored the requirement of trial by jury and manipulated the courts.
Why is understanding of the term republic critical in appreciating the American Government and what are the implications of this term?
Republic means a system of representation operating in government to make and enforce law.
the house is elected by whom?
directly by the people
the senate is elected by whom?
selected by state legislatures
the president is elected by whom?
selected by an electoral college
What were the two majorities that the framers considered important in determining popular rule?
A majority of the people and a majority of the states
How does federalism relate to one of the two majorities? (states and people)
political authority is divided between a national government and several state governments.
what are the 3 powers associated with federalism?
enumerated, reserved, concurrent
how does checks and balances related to the separation of powers?
because the three branches share powers each has the capacity to check the powers of the others. It maintains a balance of power in theory and prevents one branch from becoming too oppressive.
what were the arguments used by madison in federalist 10 and 51 to prove that the constitution would promote liberties?
many opinions so hard to create a tyrannical majority, coalitions would be more moderate
who would find more allies in a large republic?
people with an unpopular view (many opinions and interests)
Why didn't the founders see a need for a Bill of Rights?
There were many guarantees and limitations within the Constitution itself.
what are some examples in the constitution of why a bill of rights was not needed right away?
Writ of habeas corpus, bill of attainder, ex post facto law, right to trial by jury, no religious test for holding office
How does Beard evaluate the creation of the Constitution?
there were two major economic interests and one dominates at the convention
what were the 2 major economic interests in the constitution?
1) personal property (money, public securities)
2) real property (farm, land, slaves)
in federalist 10 what were two methods of removing the causes of factions?
destroying liberty and giving every citizen the same interests
federalist 10 warned people of what?
political parties and factions
in federalist 10, what are two causes of factions?
removing causes and controlling its effects
in federalist 10, what would you have to give the people the freedom of?
freedom of choice and people can't agree on anything
in federalist 10, we may not have an enlightened leader who can do what?
control all the differing opinions
in the declaration of independence, what does it mean that governments are instituted among men?
should protect those rights with the consent of the governed so it is the right of the people to institute a new government
in the declaration of independence, they stated that the king has what?
done things to usurp the basic rights of the human condition (been oppressive)
the king knew about the problems the colonies were having. true or false.
true, they told him the problems and they have done nothing about it
in the declaration of independence, what did the last paragraph say?
we are going to be free and totally dissolved from the British, completely independent
in the declaration of independence, how many things were listed that the king did wrong?
what were the radical parts of the revolution?
change in principle, vision of authority, legislative branch, required consent
what were some reasons the articles failed?
could not regulate commerce, all states had to agree, president didn't have any power (couldn't tax)
rule by the few
what form of government is the US now?
federal presidential democracy
what government plan was referred to as the "league of friendship"?
articles of confederation
what two people believed that a stronger national government was essential?
washington and hamilton
the delegates of the constitutional convention were authorized to do what?
produce a revision of the articles fo confederation
who wasn't present at the constitutional convention?
thomas jefferson, john adams, patrick henry
form of government in which a system of representation operates
the proponents of the constitution were called the ______.
bill of rights
first ten amendments to the constitution
true or false: any effort by the Framers to use the constitution to end slavery would have meant the end of the constitution
true or false: the president, like most state governors, has a line-item veto
true or false: gridlock is one negative side effect of the separation of powers
true or false: the text suggests that the federalists could have been called "state-righters"
what was the real revolution according to john adams?
framers rejected the notion of royal prerogative and recognized that legit government requires the consent of the governed
true or false: those who attended the constitutional convention were experienced and relatively young
what was the goal of the american revolution?
was the revolution a majority or minority movement?
why did only a few benefit financially from the revolution?
taxes were higher before and during the war, trade was disrupted, debts got higher and higher
which state refused to send anyone to the constitutional convention?
what were the key features of the virginia plan?
1) national legislature would have supreme powers which states could not (power to veto)
2) one house would be elected directly by the people
an amendment can be proposed by what two ways?
1) 2/3 vote of both houses of congress
2) national convention at request of 2/3 of the state
-once proposed an amendment must be ratified by 3/4 of states
the American version of representative democracy was based on what two principles?
separation of powers and federalism
antifederalists argued that the nation needed what?
loose confederation of states with most powers of government in the hands of state legislatures and state courts
Americans thought that liberty was only safe in what?
small societies governed by direct democracy or by large legislatures with small districts and frequent turnover among members
true or false: the individual interests of the Framers did not dominate the convention
true except in a few cases where a provision would have affected them directly (tended to represent their states on important matters)
what was the worst inequality according to the framers and to people now?
framers thought it was political privilege and modern observers think it is differences in wealth
the line item veto law gave the president the authority to do what?
eliminate individual items in large appropriations bills, expansions in certain income-transfer programs and tax breaks
what happened in Clinton et. al v. New York et. al.?
the supreme court said the constitution does not all the president to cancel specific items in tax and spending legislation
what helped them write the constitution?
theory of human nature, lessons of past experience, and close consideration of how governments in other countries and times worked
This set is often in folders with...
AP Gov Chapter 5 part 2
Economics book 1
Judicial Branch of Georgia State Government
Government, Unit 2, Assignment 5&7
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