51 terms

Chapter 19 World History

influenza pandemic
epidemic of the flu that occurred over a large geographic area and affected significant portion of the population; disease spread with terrifying speed; also known as "Spanish influenza"; well above 20 million people died
Gertrude Stein
hosted many writers who continued to live in Europe in her home; called the people who served in the war the lost generation
Lost Generation
the group of young people who served in the war; also refers to the writers like Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Passos; their novels reflected a generation that had lose its moral grounding during the war
Franz Kafka
Czech writer who used surrealism in this work; wrote The Castle; stories of struggle to find meaning
a form of literature that brings conscious and unconscious ideas together to portray life in a dreamlike way; Franz Kafka
James Joyce
Irish writer who wrote Ulysses; revolutionary book that broke from traditional novel; used a technique called "stream of consciousness"; lacked normal punctuation and skips around
T.S. Eliot
American born poet who expressed the negative outlook of the postwar years; The Waste Land; described world without faith and where moral and spiritual values could not be restored
Igor Stravinsky
Russian-born composer who wrote the ballet The Rite of Spring; caused major uproar since broke completely with traditional music composition; twelve tone scale; unusual instruments
new form of music that originated among African American community in NOLA; fused West Africa and Latin American sounds with folk and European; Louis Armstrong
Pablo Picasso
artist in Paris who created cubism (with Braque)
style of art that emphasized geometric designs and showed objects from different viewpoints at the same time
Salvador Dali
Spanish surrealist painter who painted "the Persistence of Memory"; attempted to represent the unconscious and objects not relate to one another
group of painters that used random images to reflect what they considered the insanity of the war
Chinese artist who praised traditional Chinese art; last great painter of the older school of Chinese art
Louis Sullivan
American who pioneered new architecture style; helped develop the skyscraper; created new style called functionalism
style created by Sullivan where buildings are designed for its specific use instead of style
Frank Lloyd Wright
student of Sullivan who adopted many of his ideas; believed buildings should fit into their environment
international style
new style of architecture that included uninterrupted sheets of steel and glass
women who wore shore hair and skirts; went out to public places like jazz clubs
Great Depression
collapse of the New York Stock Exchange; marked beginning of this time; prices and wages fell; unemployment rose; business activity slowed
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; drop in stock prices that were artificially high; stock became worthless overnight; banks had no money; borrowers could not repay their loans to get money
Herbert Hoover
President who tried to revive American economy; efforts had little effect in face of massive economic collapse
President in 1932; created New Deal and Social Security Act
New Deal
program of relief and reform created by the federal government; each state was given money to provide needy with clothing, food, and shelter; public works; FDR
Social Security Act of 1935
provided for unemployment and old age benefits; established 40 hour workweek and minimum wages; guaranteed workers the right to form unions; FDR
Maginot Line
a system where France rebuilt its army and constructed a series of steel and concrete fortifications nearly 200 miles along borders of Germany and Luxembourg; to prevent Germany from attacking France
Locarno Pacr
a number of treaties signed by European powers that pledged their countries would peacefully settle all future disputes and guaranteed existing boundaries between France and Germany; France signed mutual assistance treaties with Czech and Poland
general strike
when workers in various industries refused to work until their demands were met; happened in France
Popular Front
left-wing parties in France organized this government
Leon Blum
socialist leader of Popular Front who became premier of France in 1936
when an item is place under government control; weapons in France underwent partial this
Ramsay McDonald
leader of the Labour Party who spoke out for workers; formed coalition government with Liberal Party
Easter Rising
a revolt of Irish Nationalists who wanted complete independence from GB
Sein Fein
an Irish nationalist party in 1981 who dominated the election for Irish seats in the British parliament
Irish Republican Army
Sinn Fein's military who battled British troops in a series of violent and bitter struggles; British received little support from Irish people
Benito Mussolini
man who became extreme nationalist; organized his own party Fascist Pary
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition; anti-democratic and anti-socialist
Black Shirts
Facists that conducted violent campaigns against their opponents; broke up strikes, intimidated voters, drove elected socialists officials from office; "purpose to defend Italy against a communist revolution"
corporatist state
state where representation was determined by area of economic activity
Nazi Party
National Socialist German Workers' Party; nationalistic, anti-Semitic, anti-communist; Adolf Hitler; elimination of all Jews and others that were "impure"
Third Reich
what Hitler called his rule; his empire
Rome-Berlin Axis
alliance between Hitler and Mussolini formed in 1936
New Economic Policy
Lenin's response to Russia's economic collapse and disorder; major industries under control; Nepmen arose
collective farms
where land was pooled into large farms on which people worked together as a group; peasants shared the scarce modern farm machinery
Leon Trotsky
man who fought with Stalin for power in Communism; exiled from Soviet Union; murdered on Stalin's orders; strict Marxist
command economy
economy in which government controlled all economic decisions
Five Year Plan
plan established by Soviet government with Stalin; double production of oil and coal; triple of steal; modern industrialized society; collective farming
dictator who defeated Trotsky; ruled people by fear
Political Bureau of the Communist Party; Supreme Soviet elected members; Stalin controlled this
large scale elimination
Communist International; way to get other established nations to accept communism; overthrew democracies by convincing workers in other countries to rebel