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everything presented before the camera: acting, costume, decor, makeup


arrangement of persons, objects, and space within a single frame to create meaning


single continuous run of the camera

extreme close up

part of the face occupies whole frame

close up

face/hand occupies whole frame

medium shot

shot with head, shoulders, chest and hand gestures

long shot

shot with whole person and surroundings

establishing shot

beginning shot with whole locale

POV shot

shot showing what character is looking at

reaction shot

shot showing character's reaction


camera and its assembly moves in tandem with subject


camera rotates on fixed axis to show panorama

swish pan

rapid rotation creating a blurred image

wide angle

wider angle shot makes objects seem more distant than they really are


makes objects seem closer and moving slowly

rack focus

shift lens focus during a shot

soft focus

eliminates blemishes and produces dreamlike effect

deep focus

objects in foreground and background in focus

high angle

camera looks down on subject

low angle

camera looks up to subject

high key

high level of illumination

low key

low level of illumination

front lighting

lighting object from the front

back lighting

lighting from the back

diffused lighting

unfocused soft lighting where objects lose sharp contours


degree to which colors are vivid or washed out


use of shadow for expressive purposes


source of sound appears in picture


background music, voice or sound whose source not in picture


lip synchronous speech with speaker visible

voice over

off screen voice that can be heard by audience not characters

sound bridge

sound track (dialogue, music, effects) which carries over from one shot to another shot of another scene before cutting first scene

sound mix

post production manipulation of relative intestates of recorded sounds and addition of new sounds


end of one shot is spliced to beginning of next shot

match cut

two shots linked visually or thematically

jump cut

middle section of continuous shot removed so beginning and end are joined together

cross cutting

cutting from one line of action to another and back


shot of action occurring at the same time as the main action

match on action

action shot replaced by another action shot from different focal point

shot/reverse shot

shot of character and then next shot of another talking to each other


juxtaposition of short dissimilar shots inviting the viewer to make to make conscious connection between them


invisible editing not calling attention to scene cut


screen or soundtrack changes from black to image or silence to sound (or opposite is fade-out)


optimal effect in which one shot fades out while another fades in


one shot replaces another by wiping other off the screen

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