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a substance that is prepared from killed or weakend disease causing agents including certain bacteria


able to cause disease


a change in genotype caused when cells take up foriegn genetic material


a virus that infects bateria

double helix

two strands twisted around eachother


subunits that make up DNA


the five-carbon sugar in DNA nucleotides

base-pairing rules

the structure and size of the nitrogen bases allows for only these two paired combination

complimentary base pairs

the sequence of the strand on one strand determinesthe sequence of bases on the other strand

DNA replication

the processof making a copy of DNA

DNA helicase

open the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the complimentary nitrogen bases between the two strands

replication fork

the areas where the double helix seperates

DNA polymerase

move along each of the DNA strands, adding nucleotides to exposed nitrogen bases according to the base pair rules

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