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34 terms

Chapter 20 Vocab

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Adipose Tissue
type of connective tissue whose cells contain fat
Anatomy
the study of the structure of an organism
Blood
a type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended
Bone
a type of connective tissue consisting of living cells held in a rigid matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium salts
Cardiac Muscle
a type of striated muscle that forms the contractile wall of the heart
Cartilage
a flexible connective tissue consisting of living cells and collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix
Circulatory System
the organ system that transports materials such as nutrients and other wastes from body cells
Connective Tissue
animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix, which they produce
Digestive System
the organ system involved in ingestion and digestion of food, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes
Endocrine System
the organ system consisting of ductless glands that secrete hormones and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to the hormones
Epithelial Tissue
a sheet of tightly packed cells lining organs, body cavities and external surfaces, also called epithelium
Fibrous Connective Tissue
a dense tissue with large numbers of collagenous fibers organized into parallel bundles. this is the dominant issue in tendons and ligaments
Homeostasis
the steady state of body functioning, a state of equilibrium characterized by a dynamic interplay between outside forces that tend to chance an organism's internal environment and the internal control mechanisms that oppose such changes
Immune System
an animal body's system of defenses against agents that cause disease
Integumentary System
the organ system consisting of the skin and its derivatives, such as hair and nails in mammals
Interstitial Fluid
an aqueous solution that surrounds body cells and through which materials pass back and forth between the blood and the body tissues
Loose Connective Tissue
the most widespread connective tissue in the vertebrate body it binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organs in place
Lymphatic System
the vertebrate organ system through which lymph circulates; includes lymph vessels, lymph nodes and the spleen
Muscle Tissue
tissue consisting of long muscle cells that can contract, either on its own or when stimulated by nerve impulses; the most abundant tisue in a typical animal
Muscular System
the organ system that includes all the skeletal muscles in the body
Negative Feedback
a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.
Nervous System
the organ system that forms a communication and coordination network between all parts of an animal's body
Nervous Tissue
tissue made up of neurons and supportive cells
Neuron
a nerve cell; the fundamental structural and functional unit of the nervous system, specialized for carrying signals from one location in the body to another
Organ
a structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions
Organ System
a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
Physiology
the study of the functions of an organism's structures
Reproductive System
organ system responsible for reproduction
Respiratory System
functions in exchanging gases with the environment. supplies the blood with O2 and disposes CO2
Skeletal Muscle
type of striated muscle attached to the skeleton; generally responsible for voluntary movements of the body
Skeletal System
provides body support and protects body organs, such as the brain, heart and lungs
Smooth Muscle
lacks striations; responsible for involuntary body activities
Tissue
integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both
Urinary System
forms and excretes urine while regulating the amount of water and ions in the body fluids