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study of the interaction between organisms and their environment


entire part of earth where living things exist


interaction of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) factors


group of populations in the same area


group of individuals of same species in same area

biotic factors

behaviors and interactions with other species

abiotic factors

nonliving, chemical and physical components


temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind in an area


a major type of ecosystem

photic zone

upper part of aquatic biome, sufficient light for photosynthesis

aphotic zone

below photic zone of an aquatic biome, not much light

benthic zone

bottom aquatic biome, made of sand and inorganic sediments


dead organic matter, source of food


narrow layers of abrupt temperature change in an aquatic biome

littoral zone

shallow, well-lit area close to shore in an aquatic biome

limnetic zone

aquatic biome, water too deep to support rooted plants

oligotrophic lakes

nutrient-poor and oxygen rich

eutrophic lakes

nutrient-rich and oxygen deficient


habitat inundaned by water at least some of the time


plants dependent on water-rich soil


transition area between river and sea

intertidal zone

part of marine biome periodically submerged by tides, rocky

pelagic zone

part or marine biome with vast realm of open water, very abundant

tropical rainforest

biome by equator, needs heat and rain, lots of plants/animals


biome of grassland with some tries, lots of grazers


biome with hot, dry climate; CAM plants, leaves with just backbends


biome of rolling grassland, no trees, regular fires


biome of high foliage area, different terrain, dependent on fires

deciduous forest

biome with tree forests that are temperate (loose leaves in winter)


biome of a pine-tree forest


biome that is frozen/half-frozen all year

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