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Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers.
What reasons, events, and inventions helped bring about the Industrial Revolution?
Resources: Coal, water, iron ore
Events: Population rose = more labor, more entrepreneurs came arose.
Reasons: Harbors and Rivers/Waterways
Inventions: Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, Spinning Mule, Steam Engine, Railroads
How did science, technology and big business promote industrial growth?
Entrepreneurs took risks for their businesses and it paid off in the long run. Transportation increased and sped up the rate of goods being exported and imported. People understood science/how things worked better so they made things more efficient.
How did rising population help the Industrial Revolution?
More people meant more Consumers/Buyers and more laborers/workers.
What 5 advantages did Great Britain have that other nations in Europe did not?
Large population, extensive natural resources/factors of production, political stability, Entrepreneurs, harbors/waterways
What were living conditions like in Britain during the Industrialization?
Poor, unsanitary, polluted, unhealthy
What were the possible dangers of working in a mine or factory?
Injury from exploding boilers/machine malfunctions, disease, poor lighting
What were some of the negative effects of the industrialization?
Too little pay, Machines replaced people for their jobs.
Why did some people flock to British cities and towns during the revolution?
They were seeking jobs.
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers.
a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts.
List 5 reasons why productivity increased during the Industrial Revolution.
Technology increase, railroads, machinery increased, natural resources, entrepreneurs.
What were 4 effects of the railroad in Great Britain?
Expanded cities + Countries, sped up production, brought in profit, spread culture
Why were other European countries slower to industrialize then Britain?
Social structure, geography/location
Take it to the next step. Why did non-industrialized countries fall behind?
Less productivity, less money, less labor/workers/population
Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education - created public school system in MASS - became model for nation
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
British reformer who led the abolitionist movement that ended the British slave trade in 1807. Died one month after Great Britain banned slavery in 1833
Principles of Political Economy (1817); "iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation
English economist: Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics - let it be/less government
a British cotton manufacturer and utopian socialist; believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
John Stuart Mill
liberal thinker who believed that freedom and liberty comes from individualism. If the government makes all the decisions regarding freedoms then they aren't really free, and there is tyranny of majority.
Charles Fourier and Henri de Saint-Simon
Started Socialism-public regulated production
What were the two warring classes that Marx and Engels outlined in The Communist Manifesto?
Bourgeoisie and proletariat
Why did workers join together in unions?
To strike and gain higher pay, better working conditions, etc
What kind of society did early socialists want?
They wanted a free one with little government. Capitalism.
What were Adam Smith's three natural laws of economics?
law of self interest, law of competition, law of supply and demand.
What were the positive effects of the industrial revolution?
Higher wages, shorter work hours, better working/living conditions, increase in production of goods, expanded educational opportunities
What characteristics do capitalism and socialism share? How are they different?
Capitalism is more freedom for the people and less government while socialism is more government control and intervening. They both share the fact that they wanted better conditions for the people.
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