138 terms

Criminology Chapters 1-3

Because criminologists are influenced by many disciplines, the field of criminology is considered
Youth Crime
While self report studies can be used to examine the offense history of prison inmates and drug users, most self report studies have focused on
Valid & Reliable
Criminologists interested in computing criminal statistics focus on creating _ and _ measurements of criminal behavior
The mid 18th century belief stressing that the relationship between crime and punishment should be balanced and fair can be traced to Cesare Beccaria
Critical criminologists contend that society's economic system plays a significant role in producing criminal behavior
Consensus View
Which concept of crime implies that crimes are behaviors that all members of society consider to be repugnant?
Conflict View
Which view of crime sees society as a collection of diverse groups who are in a constant and continuing struggle to gain political power to advocate a situation?
Per 100,000 US Citizens
UCR expresses data as raw figures, crime rates, and changes in the number and rate over time. how are UCRs expressed?
The NCVS anually samples 42,000 _ and 78,000 individuals age 12 or older in order to establish crime victimization
Victims Overreporting Crime
A validity concern associated with the NCVS involves
Decreased by 40%
How does today's violent crime rate compare to 1991?
The age structure of the population has a significant influence on crime trends
Crime peaks in adolescence and then declines. What's the peak age for property crime?
Persistence and desistance
Discovery of the chronic offender has forced criminologists to consider _ in their explanation of crime
The elderly
Some victims, especially _ develop a persistent fear that they will be re-victimized
Until 40 years ago, victims were viewed as passive targets considered to be in the wrong place at the wrong time
50% Lower
People living in rural areas have a victimization rate almost _ than that in urban
Victim Precipitation Theory
Which victimization theory claims that victims may initiate the confrontation that leads to their victimization?
Research indicates a strong association between victims and which characteristic?
Crisis Intervention
_ programs assist victims who feel isolated and vulnerable and in need of emergency services
Reconciliation programs are based on the concept of restorative justice
An academic discipline that uses the scientific method to study the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal behavior
Involving two or more academic fields
Criminal Justice
System made up of the agencies of social control, such as police departments, the courts, and correctional institutions, that handle criminal offenders
Criminological Enterprise
The various subareas included within the scholarly discipline of criminology, which, taken as a whole, define the field of study. Includes criminal statistics, sociology of law, developing theories of crime causation, penology, and victimology
Valid Measure
A measure that actually measures what it purports to measure; a measure that is factual
Reliable Measure
A measure that produces consistent results from one measurement to another
Sex offender registration lists help deter potential offenders and reduce the incidence of child molestation
Psychological Orientation View
Crime is a function of personality, development, social learning or cognition
Biological Orientation View
Antisocial behavior as a function of biochemical, genetic and neurological factors, INTERNAL FORCES
Sociological Orientation View
Criminal behavior is a product of social forces including neighborhood conditions, poverty, socialization and group interaction
Domestic violence is abnormal. Wife abusers must have abnormal brains
White Collar Crime
Illegal acts that capitalize on a person's status in the marketplace. White collar crimes may include theft, embezzlement, fraud, market manipulation, restraint of trade, and false advertising
Criminal Statistics
Gathering valid crime data. Devising new research methods; measuring crime patterns and trends.
Sociology of law
Determining the origin of law. Measuring the forces that can change laws and society
Theory Construction
Predicting individual behavior. Understanding the cause of crime rates and trends.
Criminal Behavior Systems
Determining the nature and cause of specific crime patterns. Studying violence, theft, organized crime, white collar crime and public order crimes
Punishment, sanctions and corrections; studying the correction and control of criminal behavior
Studying the nature and cause of victimization
Terrorists are disturbed, angry people, many of whom are psychopaths
Treatment of criminal offenders that is aimed at preventing future criminal behavior
Capital Punishment
The execution of criminal offenders; the death penalty
Mandatory Sentences
A statutory requirement that a certain penalty shall be carried out in all cases of conviction for a specified offense or series of offenses
Middle Ages
People who violated social norms or religious practices were believed to be witches or possessed by demons, cruel torture, harsh penalties
Classical Criminology
One of the origins of criminology, theoretical perspective suggesting that people have free will to choose criminal or conventional behaviors, people choose to commit crime for reasons of greed or personal need, and crime can be controlled only by the fear of criminal sanctions, SITUATIONAL FORCES
The view that people's behavior is motivated by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain
Cesare Beccaria
Italian 1738-1794, developed utilitarianism, said to deter crime punishment must be sufficient, and for it to be effective it must be public swift certain and proportionate
The branch of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and suggests that human behavior is a product of social, biological, psychological or economic forces, shift from utilitarianism to brain functioning and personality
Scientific Method
The use of verifiable principles and procedures for the systematic acquisition of knowledge. Typically, involves formulating a problem, creating hypotheses, collecting data through observation and experiment to verify the hypothesis
Cesare Lombroso
The father of criminology (1835-1909) developed the idea of biological determinism, that criminals differed anatomically from noncriminals
Auguste Comte
(1798-1857) Founder of sociology, believed societies passed through stages, positivist stage: when people embrace a rational, scientific view of the world
JK Lavater, studied facial features of criminals
Franz Joseph Gall & Johann K Spurzheim, studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head
Biosocial Theory
Approach to criminology that focuses on the interaction between biological and social factors as they are related to crime
Sociological Criminology
Approach to criminology, based on the work of Quetelet and Durkheim, that focuses on the relationship between social factors and crime
A lack of norms or clear social standards, because of rapidly shifting moral values, the individual has few guides to what is socially acceptable
Chicago School
Group of urban sociologists who studied the relationship between environmental conditions and crime, said crime could be eradicated if social/economic conditions improved
Process of human development and enculturation. Socialization is influenced by key social processes and institutions
Conflict Theory
The view that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and that those who maintain social power will use it to further their own ends (Marx), ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL FORCES
Critical Criminology
The view that crime is a product of the capitalist system (Marx)
Karl Marx
Communist Manifesto (oppressive labor conditions), economic system controls all, explotation of working class, conflict theory & critical criminology
Developmental Theory
Gluecks, the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics, MULTIPLE FORCES
Rational Choice Theory
The view that crime is a function of a decision making process in which the would be offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act, Contemporary Criminology
Trait Theory
The view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits, Contemporary Criminology
Social Structure Theory
The view that disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime, Contemporary Criminology, ECOLOGICAL FORCES
Social Process Theory
The view that criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organizations, institutions and processes in society, Contemporary Criminology, SOCIALIZATION FORCES
Behavior that departs from the social norm but is not necessarily criminal
Critical Criminologists
Members of a branch of criminology that focuses on the oppression of the poor, women, and minorities, thereby linking class conflict, sexism and racism to crime rates. They examine how those who hold political and economic power shape the law to uphold their self-interests
An act, deemed socially harmful or dangerous, that is specifically defined, prohibited and punished under the criminal law
Having criminal penalties reduced rather than eliminated
Consensus View
The belief that the majority of citizens in a society share common values and agree on what behaviors should be defined as criminal
Criminal Law
The written code that defines crimes and their punishments
Conflict View
The belief that criminal behavior is defined by those in power in such a way as to protect and advance their own self-interest
Interactionist View
The belief that those with social power are able to impose their values on society as a whole, and these values then define criminal behavior
Code of Hammurabi
The first written criminal code, developed in Babylonia about 2000BC
Mosaic Code
The laws of the ancient Israelites, found in the Old Testament of the Judeo-Christian Bible
A rule derived from previous judicial decisions and applied to future cases; the basis of common law
Common Law
Early English law, developed by judges, which became the standardized law of the land in England and eventually formed the basis of the criminal law in the United States
Statutory Crimes
Crimes defined by legislative bodies in response to changing social conditions, public opinion, and custom
A serious offense that carries a penalty of imprisonment, usually for one year or more, and may entail loss of political rights
A minor crime usually punished by a short jail term and/or a fine
Social Goals for Contemporary Criminal Law
Retribution, Punishment, Equity, Express Morality, Maintain Social Order, Social Control, Deterrence
Appellate Court
Court that reviews trial court procedures to determine whether they have complied with accepted rules and constitutional doctrines
Uniform Crime Report
Large database, compiled by the FBI, of crimes reported and arrests made each year throughout the United States, measures homicides and arrests and that it is consistent, omits crimes not reported and drug usage, and can have reporting errors
Part I Crimes
The eight most serious offenses included in the UCR: murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, arson, larceny and motor vehicle theft
Part II Crimes
All other crimes, aside from the eight Part I crimes, included in the UCR arrest data. Part II crimes include drug offenses, sex crimes and vandalism, among others
Cleared Crimes
Crimes are considered cleared when at least one person is arrested, charged, and turned over to the court for prosecution or when some element beyond police control precludes the physical arrest of an offender
The official crime data is extremely accurate and can give us a valid picture of the nature, extent and trends in crime
National Incident-Based Reporting System
Program that requires local police agencies to provide a brief account of each incident and arrest within 22 crime patterns, including incident, victim and offender information
Selecting a limited number of people for study as representative of a larger group
All people who share a particular characteristic, such as all high school students or all police officers
National Crime Victimization Survey
The ongoing victimization study conducted jointly by the Justice Department and the US Census Bureau that surveys victims about their experiences with law violation, includes crimes not reported, uses careful sampling techniques and is yearly, relies on victim memory and honesty and omits substance abuse
Self-report Survey
A research approach that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts, include nonreported crimes, substance abuse and personal information, relies on honesty of offenders and omits offenders who refuse or are unable (incarcerated)
Most kids do not commit crime; a few hardcore delinquents are responsible for most criminal activity
Crime is out of control and is more dangerous now in the United States than at any time in history
Crime Patterns
Summer months (except murders/robberies in December & January), crime rises with temperature, large urban areas, western & southern states, poverty, youth, men
Immigrants who are in the US illegally commit a lot crime
The Old West is still pretty wild, having higher crime rates than the east
Instrumental Crimes
Offenses designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal
Expressive Crimes
Offenses committed not for profit or gain but to vent rage, anger or frustration
Aging Out
Phrase used to express the fact that people commit less crime as they mature
A chemical substance, such as dopamine, that transmits nerve impulses from one neuron to another
Masculinity Hypothesis
The view that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men
Liberal Feminist Theory
A view of crime that suggests that the social and economic role of women in society controls their crime rates
Racial Threat Theory
As the size of the black population increases, the perceived threat to the white population increases, resulting in a greater amount of social control imposed on blacks
Chronic Offenders
Career criminals, the small group of persistent offenders who account for a majority of all criminal offenses
Early Onset
The view that repeat offenders begin their criminal careers at a very young age
Three Strikes
Laws that require offenders to serve life in prison after they are convicted of a third felony
The study of the victim's role in criminal events
Criminologists who focus on the victims of crime
The cost of victimization to American society is in the hundreds of billions dollars each year
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Psychological reaction to a highly stressful event; symptoms may include depression, anxiety, flashbacks and recurring nightmares
Victims are passive people who would never get involved in themselves
Cycle of Violence
Victims of crime, especially victims of childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crimes themselves
Location of Victimization
Violent crime in open area daytime or early evening, serious violent crimes after 6pm, less during the daytime, central city areas, in schools, african american western urban homes, renters
Victim Characteristics
African American, never married, young, women- rape (nonstranger), men-robbery (stranger)
Repeat Victimization
Some people magnets, Vulnerable, Gratifiable, or Antagonistic are three reasons
Victim Precipitation Theory
The view that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization
Active Precipitation
Aggressive or provocative behavior of victims that results in their victimization
Passive Precipitation
Personal or social characteristics of victims that make them attractive targets for criminals; such victims may unknowingly either threaten or encourage their attackers
Lifestyle Theories
Views on how people become crime victims because of lifestyles that increase their exposure to criminal offenders (high risk, college, criminal)
Most crime victims are people who are simply in the wrong place at the wrong time
Deviant Place Theory
The view that victimization is primarily a function of where people live
Routine Activities Theory
The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders
Suitable Targets
Objects of crime (persons or property) that are attractive and readily available
Capable Guardians
Effective deterrents to crime, such as police or watchful neighbors
Motivated Offenders
People willing and able to commit crimes
Routine Activities & Lifestyle Concepts
Proximity to criminals, time of exposure to criminals, target attractiveness, guardianship
Routine Activities & Lifestyle Predictions
Live in high crime areas, Go our late at night, Carry valuables, Engage in risky behavior, Are without friends or family to watch/help them
Task Force on Victims of Crime 1982
Balance between recognizing victim's rights and defendant's due process rights
Omnibus Victim and Witness Protection Act
Victim impact statements, greater protection for witnesses, more stringent bail laws, use of restitution (notification of whereabouts) in criminal cases
Comprehensive Crime Control Act/Victims of Crime Act
Federal funding for compensation and assistance projects
Victim-witness Assistance Programs
Government programs that help crime victims and witnesses; may include compensation, court services, or crisis intervention
Financial aid awarded to crime victims to repay them for their loss and injuries; may cover medical bills, loss of wages, loss of future earnings, or counseling
Crisis Intervention
Emergency counseling for crime victims
Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs
Mediated face-to-face encounters between victims and their attackers, designed to produce restitution agreements and, if possible reconciliation
Victims' Bill of Rights
Notified of proceedings of case and status of defendant, present at proceedings, statement at sentencing, consulted before dismissed/plea agreement, speedy trial, be kept confidential
Criminals are given too many rights, while their victims have few legal protections