54 terms

Govt Exam2306 C4-6

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Participation Paradox
the fact that citizens vote even though a single vote rarely decided an election.
Voter Turnout
the proportion of eligible americans who actually vote.
Voting-Age Population (VAP)
the total # of persons in the US who are 18+yrs of age or older.
Direct Primary
A method of selecting party nominees in which party members participate directly in the selection of a candidate to represent them in the general election.
Runoff Primary
a second primary election that pits the two top vote-getters from the first primary, where the winner in that primary did not receive a majority. the runoff primary is used in states such as TX that have a majority election rule in party primaries
Open Primary
A type of party primary where a voter can choose on election day in which primary they will participate
Closed Primary
A type of primary where a voter is required to specify a party preference when registering to vote.
Crossover Voting
When members of one political party vote in the other party's primary to influence the nominee that's selected.
Plurality Vote
An election rule in which the candidate with the most votes wins regardless of whether it's a majority.
Party-Column Ballot
A type of ballot used in a general election where all of the candidates from each party are listed in parallel columns under the party label.
Split-Ticket Voting
A voter selecting candidates from one party for some offices and candidates from the other party for other offices.
Straight-Ticket Voting
Selecting all of the candidates of one particular party.
Office-Block Ballot
A type of ballot used in a general election where the names of the parties' candidates are randomly listed in under each office.
Australian ballot
A ballot printed by the government (as opposed to the political parties that allows people to vote in secret.
Early Voting
The practice of voting before election day at traditional voting locations, such as schools, and other locations, such as grocery and convenience stores.
Chad
The small pieces of paper produced when voting with punch-card ballots.
Electronic Voting
Voting by using touch screens.
Negative Campaigning
A strategy used in election campaigns in which candidates attack opponents' issue positions or character.
Political Action Committees (PACs)
Organizations that raise and then contribute money to political candidates
Soft Money
Money spent by political parties on behalf of political candidates, especially for the purposes of increasing voter registration and turnout.
Independent Expenditures
Money individuals and organizations spend to promote a candidate without working or communicating directly with the candidate's campaign organization.
Two-Party System
A political system characterized by 2 dominant parties competing for political offices. in such systems, minor or third parties have little chance of winning.
Pragmatism
The philosophy that ideas should be judged on the basis of their practical results rather than on the purity of their principles.
Valence Issues
issues on which virtually all of the public agree, for instance, such as peace and prosperity.
Position Issues
Issues on which the public is divided.
Decentralization
Exercise of power at the state and local levels of government in addition to the national level.
Party Realignment
The transition from one dominant party system to another.
Partisan Identification
A person's attachment to one political party or the other.
Dealignment
When increasing #'s of voters choose not to identify with either of the two parties and consider themselves to be independents.
Evangelical (Fundamentalist) Christians
A bloc of conservative Christians who are concerned with such issues as family, religion, abortion, gay rights, and community morals, and often support the Republican Party.
Party Platform
The formal issue positions of a political party, specific elements are often referred to as PLANKS in the party's platform.
Tea Party
A faction or groups of very conservative Republicans generally resistant to compromise of its principles.
Tipping
A phenomenon that occurs when a demographic group grows large enough to change the political balance in the electorate.
Swing Voters
Voters who are not bound by party identification and who support candidates of different parties in different election years.
Precinct Convention
A gathering of citizens within a precinct--where people vote--who voted in the party's primary.
Presidential Preference Primary
A primary Election that allows voters in the party to vote directly for candidates seeking their party's presidential nomination.
Interest Group
A voluntary organization that strives to influence public policy; sometimes known as a PRESSURE GROUP.
Lobbying
Directly contacting public officials to advocate for a public party.
Implementation
Administrative agencies carrying out broad public policies, enforcing state laws, providing public services, and managing day-to-day government activities.
Discretion
Wide latitude to make decisions within the broad requirements set out in the law.
TEXAS REGISTER
The official publication of the state that gives the public notice of proposed actions and adopted policies of executive branch agencies.
Clientele Groups
The groups most affected by a govt agency's regulations and programs; frequently these interest groups form close alliances with the agency based on mutual support and accommodation.
Co-Optation
Such a close alliance develops b/w state regulatory agencies and their clientele group that the regulated have, in effect, become the regulators; the interest group has captured such complete control of their regulatory agency that they are essentially self-regulated.
Access
The ability to "get in the door" to sit down and talk to the public officials. Campaign contributions are often used to gain access.
Astroturf Lobbying
Special-interest groups orchestrating demonstrations to give the impression of widespread and spontaneous public support.
Umbrella Organizations
Associations formed by smaller interests joining together to promote common policy goals by making campaign contributions and hiring lobbyists to represent their interests.
Iron Triangles
Long-standing alliances among interest groups, legislatures, and bureaucrats held together by mutual self-interest that act as subsystems in the legislative and administrative decision-making process.
Issue Networks
Dynamic alliances among a wide range of individuals and groups activated by broad public policy questions.
Political Movement
A mass alliance of like-minded groups and individuals seeking broad changes in the direction of govt policies.
Pluralist Theory
The view that, in a free society, public policy should be made by a multitude of competing interest groups, ensuring that policies will not benefit a single elite at the expense of the many.
Elitist Theory
The view that the state is ruled by a small # of participants who exercise power to further their own self-interest.
Revolving Door
The interchange of employees b/w govt agencies and the private businesses with which they have dealings.
Conflict of Interest
A situation in which public officers stand to benefit personally form their official decisions.
Late-Train Contributions
Campaign funds given to the winning candidate after the election up to 30 days before the legislature comes into session. such contributions are designed to curry favor with winning candidates.
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