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the belief that humans are divided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and can be ranked as superior or inferior.


language, values, beliefs, roles, behaviors, technology, artifacts (art/music), literature; characterize the society.

cultural diffusion

the process by which technology, beliefs, customs, etc. spread from one group or society to another.


exagerrated belief associated with a certain category of people--justify the way we conduct ourselves in relating to this group; fixed set of ideas not a category


according to Allport this establishes forms of spatial boundaries "ghetto system"; the tool of discrimination


denying quality of treatment ex. active steps to exclude an out-group from a school system or country because they belong to a certain ethnic group, race, class, sexual orientation.


more than thinking ill of others without due cause; a feeling of favorable or unfavorable toward a person/group and not based on actual experience ex. all asians are smart; based on errongeous (incorrect) judgements


the belief that your religion/race is superior than any other; the belief and the action pushed on others; in the extremes people are willing to kill for their belief

stock of taken-for-granted knowledge

commonsense; common understanding; in every society you must know certain structures.


repeated actions; people begin to believe and then forget the origin of the idea.

reification (v. reify)

an abstract idea becomes concrete reality

objectivation (v. objectivate)

word or language to describe a human activity and can be seperated from a specific individual

primary socialization

taught by those that raise us; dictates what we do

secondary socialization

educators, rabis, priests, psychologists can alter to some degree the primary socialization

paramount reality

overarching set of perspectives (an umbrella) the norms, values we as social actors are under; this dominates what you do, what you know, what you think; changes with culture

conceptual machineries

philosophies, theologies, psychotherapy; teach you how to behave; keeps us in line with the paramount reality, symbolic universe, structural necessities


how you communicate these ideas; key to how we are able to communicate very important elements; common stock of knowledge could not exist without this because things must be explained/communicated


given tasks that enable the major tenants of paramount reality to be carried out; legitimizing through the institutions.


entity that meets basic human needs; education, politics, military, religion, family, government, economy


transformation due to re-socialization; reassign reality; must cope with dismantling, disintegrating the preceding nomic structure of subective reality: includes social and conceptual conditions

Sitz im Leben

situation in life; setting in life; creates the opening for destructive leaders to take advantage of citizens.

relevance structures

specific to context; those that need to know some things and other things you dont need to know for your job

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