Name the infectious disease and bladder tumor commonly seen together
Schistosomiasis + squamous cell carcinoma
Number one risk factor of bladder tumors?
Which tumors are more likely invasive - flat or papillary? Marker of invasion and prognosis?
Flat are much more likely to be invasive, but both can become invasive DEPTH of downward invasion (flat can move down without moving upward!)
Rhabdomyosarcoma occurs in what age group? Describe its appearance. Describe difference in males and females
1. Bladder tumor seen in children 2. Grape=like "Polypoid / "sarcoma botryoides" 3. Females: protrudes thru introitus / Males: Bladder obstruction
What drives prostatic hyperplasia Describe growth and measuring scale. Differentiate from prostatic cancer
- ANDROGENS (inhibition of androgens > atrophy) - Growth is symmetric, circular and outward (Like a ball of tissue growing out) - Measured via Gleason Scale - Cancer grows ASYMMETRICALLY in random directions!
Complications of prostatic cancer?
1. Perineural invasion - grows along nerve 2. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) 3. Spread to vertebrae 4. Spread to lungs