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How did the influx of immigrants before 1900 create an awareness of ethnic and class differences?
competition for occupations
sudden influx in different ethnic backgrounds
grouped together- followed customs
By 1900, ____, ____, and ____ all had more than a million residents, and ____% of all Americans lived in cities.
W.E.B. Du Bois
The Philadelphia Negro (1899) - wealthy black entrepreneurs within tennement neighborhoods built their own churches, ran successful businesses, and established charitable organizations to help their people
How did Victorian morality shape middle-class society and culture?
-human nature = malleable, people can improve selves
-hard work developed personal self-discipline and also fostered national progress
-good manners and "culture" in the form of literature and the fine arts were hallmark of a truly civilized society
-behavior and income define social standing
a set of social ideas influential among the priviledged classes of England and the United States during the reign (1837-1901) of Britain's Queen Victoria
-argued that the success of the middle and upper classes rested on their superior talent, intelligence, morality, an self-control
-women are driving force for moral improvement
How did the Victorian code heighten class differences and create visible distinictions among social groups?
emphasis on morals, manners, and behavior
-usually self-righteous, intensely moralistic outlook
"the woman's sphere"
1840s onward, the home idealized as "the woman's sphere" a protected retreat where she could express special maternal gifts, including a sensitivity toward children and an aptitude for religion
-foster artistic enviroment that would nurture family's cultural improvement
urban institution that transformed teh shipping experience for their middle- and upper-class patrons
-make shopping exciting activity
-workplace for lower class and social club for upper class
wealth and education
education comes as a sign of upper class
industrialists and businessmen dominate boards of trustees of many educational institutions, and colleges were viewed as a training ground for future business and professional leaders
-athletic field = affluent young men for business and professions
elite sport played by college teams
social darwinism - ideal arena for improving strength, courage, and self-discipline o fyouth
-surrogae frontier experience in increasingly urban society
new co-educational policies allowed women to acquire college education as never before
research university emerged
offered courses in a wide variety of subjects, established professional schools, and encouraged faculty members to pursue basic research
How did political machines and social and religious reformers address urban poverty?
-NY Society of Suppresion of Vice
-City Vigilance League
unofficial political organizaion designed to keep a particular party or faction in office
-controlled patronage, manipulated immigrants
William "Magear" Tweed
Tammany Hall machine
dispensed 60,000 patronage positions and pumped up city's debt by $70 million through graft and inflated contracts
religious groupestablished to help the poor
est. by Methodist minister "General" William Booth in England
-attract the poor with marching bands and lively preaching; follow up with offers of food, assistance, and employment; teach about solid, middle-class virtues of temperance, hard work, and self-discipline
New York's Charity Organizaton Society
Josephine Shaw Lowell
"friendly visitors" into tenements to counsel families on hwo to improve their lives; convinced that moral deficiencies lay at root of poverty, and that the "promiscuous charity" of overlapping welfare agencies undermined the desire to work, so tried to foster self-sufficiency in its charges
-accused of seeking more to control than help
founded New York Society for Supression of Vice
demanded municipal authorities close down gambling and lottery operations and censor obscene publications
City Vigilance League
clean up prostitution, gambling dens, and saloons
-blamed Tammany Hall and New York City police
institutional church movement
William S. Rainsford
large downtown churches in once-elite districs now overrun by immigrants provided their new neighbors with social servies as well as a place to worship
true Christianity commits men and women to fight social injustice
educated in Germany, argued that a truly Christian society would unite all churches, reorganize the industrial system, and work for international peace
settlement house relief workers moved into neighborhoods, where they could see firsthand the issues
-Hull House -social center for recent immigrants
-plays, held classes in English, civics, cooking, dressmaking, encouraged to preserve traditional crafts; kindergarten, laundry, employment bureau, day nursery for working mothers
-studies of city housing conditions and pressured politicans to enforce sanitation regulations
How did the urban working class change attitudes toward leisure and recreation by 1900?
more open - esp. working class
John L. Sullivan
began boxing in 1877 at age 19
beat many local strongment, but refused to fight blacks - kept from fighting finest boxer, Peter Jackson
offered a succession of acts designed for mass appeal
opened with animal act or dance number, followed by musical interlude
The middle class preferred ____ music while the working class preferred _____.
hymns, songs w/ moral message
How did writers, artists, adn educational reformers address issues of cultural conflict?
-literature: step away from traditional "elite" literature
-step away from Victorian morals
codefied standards of writing and design
Charles Eliot Norton and E.L. Godkin
"improve" American taste in interior furnishings, texties, ceramics, wallpaper, books
spoke for many young writers when he said that he was through with "literature and al that bosh"
-broaden literary appeal to general public
different tyes of "common" writers
regionalists - captured distinctive dialects adn details of featured locale
-truthful (optomistic) depiction of hte commonplace
naturalists - stressed economic na dpsychological determinants and often examined the dark underside of life
trend in early 20th-century thought an daesthetics that rejected Victorian formalism in favor of new modes of experience and expression
by nature, women were compassionate, nurturing, and sensitive to others; drinking ecnouraged men to squander earnings and profoundly threatened family life
-Woman's Christian Temperance Union
-domestication of politics
first mass organization of women
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