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a humanly organized sound, personally defined as music, as a universal phenomen NOT universal language


role of music in culture


the study of social and cultural aspects of music and dance in local and global contexts


the regular pulse


rate at which the beat moves: slow or fast


pattern of long and short durations


pattern of strong and weak beats in each measure

duple meter

4 beats: strong weak strong weak

triple meter

3: strong weak weak


an off beat


organization of sequence of pitched in succession (vocal and instrumental)
horizantal line


simultaneous surrounding of diff pitches
-combo of pitches can be constant (good) or dissonant (bad)


the interaction of different meloic lines at the same time


one melody with one voice/ instrument or multiple in unison


one main melody but two or more going on at the same time

melody + accompanament

homophony with one main melody with background


all lines follow similar rythm, all contributing at the same time


indepent lines of = importance (2+ melodies at the same tme)

imitative polyphony

one melody that has multiple entrances
a round


the way the piece is musically structured

Sun Dance Song

Great plains music

Ghost Dance Song

a pan-tribal practice

Grand Entry Song

intertribal powwow

"Spirit Valley"

R Carlos Nakai
NA flute music

"Who I Am"

NA Hip hop

"Barbry Allen"

Jean Ritchie
Anglo American Folksong

"No Depression in Heaven"

Carter Family
HillBilly 1920's

"Can't Get Enough of Texas"

Bob Wills and his TX playboys
Western Swing

"Brakeman's Blues" and "Blue Grass Special"

Bill Monroe and the BLUEgrass boys

"Honky Tonkin"

Hank Williams
Honky Tonk

"Your Cheatin' Heart"

Hank Williams
Honky Tonk

"Down the Dirt Road Blues"

Charley Patton
Country Blues- delta

"Crossroads Blues"

Robert Johnson
country blues

"Crazy Blues"

Mamie Smith
Classic blues

"Empty Bed Blues"

Bessie Smith
classic blues

"Got My Mojo Working"

Muddy Water
Electric blues


Howlin' Wolf
Electric Blues

"Long Tall Sally"

Little Richard
R&B/ R&R

"Johnny B Goode"

Chuck Berry

"That's All Right Mama"

Elvis Presely

"Hound Dog"

was done by a black lady

"Blue Suede Shoes"

Carl Perkins

"Folsom Prison Blues"

Johnny Cash


how loud or soft a note is played


tone quality or how a sound sounds


symphonic or hornbostel-sachs


vibrates a stretched string


vibrates a column of air
(woodwinds and brass)


vibrates a stretched membrane


percusiion that vibrates itself


synthesizer. electronically place

traditional native american music

diverse, songs from spirit world, orally transmitted, gender-specific, duple meter (heart beat), monophonic vocal melody

Music of the Great Plains

The Sun dance
sacrifice to great spirit
rebirth of the sun
buffalo an eahle
tree of life

Pan Tribal Music

The Ghost Dance
:one specific area then spreads everywhere
vision of the return of native landpeaceful movement


Paiute medice man in nevada

Wounded Knee Massacre

in SD
US surpress Ghost Dance relig


Pan tribal
multiple trives and non native spectators

Popular NA musicians

Buffy Sainte- Marie
John Trudell
Robbie Robertson
Marina Redbone


Chicken scratch
culturation of NA traditions and Mexican

Anglo American Folksongs

traced from British
orally transmitted
strophic (AAA)
no meter
monophonic with just one voice

Grand Ole Opry

WSM Barn dance show
live entertainment: Nashville since 1925
showcase for country singers


1920's and 30's in Appalacian Mts
fiddle, autoharp, banjo, guitar, and upright bass
Ralph Perry, Carter Fam

Western Swing

1930's in South West
string band + swing jazz
dance music
adds drums, piano, electric guitar, trumpet, and steel guitar
Bob Williams and The TX Playboys

Blue Grass

Kentucky in 1940's
acoustin ensemble: mandolin, banjo, fiddle, guitar
upright bass!
high-range nasally singing
virtuosic improvision--?
Bill Monroe

Honky Tonk

South West in 1940's
dance halls and bars
drinking, dancing, violence, anger, heartbreak
string bands + electric guitar style of western swing + lyrics of working class
Hank Williams
influenced "outlaw country"

Roots of blues

after Civil War as a fusion of:
Worksogs, holelrs, and spirituals
sharecropping replaced plantation system
reflects indiviuduality, humanity, and leisure time

Country Blues

Rural/ Delta
1930's - 1940's
solo male accompanied by a guitar maybe harmonica
Charley patton and Robert Johnson

Classic Blues

City/ Vaudeville
female with 2+ instruments
"Race Records" but declinded b/c of country blues and talkies
Mamie & Bessie Smith

Electric Blues

influenced by rural blues
Chicago in 1940's
night clubs--> electrification& shouting style
Muddy Waters and Holwin' Wolf

Rythm and blues

fast, strong back beat, energetic performance style
drumes, bass, piano, sax, electric guitar
lyrics are fun and rebellious
Little Richard and Chuch Berry

Alan Freed

calls the R&B records "rock and roll" for whites


C&W meets R&B
poor whites in 1950's
sounds black
strummed rythm guitar, upright bass
stop time


instruments stop for vocals

Sun Records

Sam Philips-- producer of Rockabilly

Cajun Music

rooted in fold ballad of french speaking Acadians of Canada (Nova Scota)
refuges in late 18th century
lower class
dance music: waltz or 2 step
stuccato rythm
high vocal rythm

Tradition Cajun

voices, button, accordian, fiddle, acoustig guittar, triangle
Breaux fam

Country/ Swing Cajun

piano & fiddle dominate, steel guitar, less acordian
Harry Choates

Harry Choates

Fiddle King of Western Swing
sparked national interset with "Jole Blon"
got screwed over!


black creole culture
creole + cajun + bles/R&B
acordian and washboard (forttoier)
faster and more syncopated than Cajun
blues notes
jitterbug 2 step

Clifton Chemier

King of Zydeco
"Zydeco et Pas Sale"
The snap beans ain't salty

Queen Ida

Queen of Zydeco

Cajun Renaissance

1964 Newport (to present)
traditional Cajun music with zydeco, rock, jezz, tejano, country, & Blues
Michael Doucet--> fiddle

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