What is the major obstacles hampering progress in antibody research and use of anti-serum?
Antibody production in sheep and horses are polyclonal so concentrations change over time
What are monoclonal antibodies?
Antibodies with identical isotypes, affinity and avidity that are produced in the laboratory by cells derived from a single B cell or plasma cell
How are monoclonal antibodies created?
1. a mouse is injected with a specific antigen to make it produce antibodies 2. the spleen is removed from the mouse in order to obtain B cells producing specific antibody 3. a hybrid cell is cultured that is made form myeloma cells and B cells
What are the problems with polyethylene glycol fusion?
There are multiple possible outcomes besides just the Spleen-SP2/0 fusion hybrid cell
What are the possible outcomes of polyethylene glycol?
a mouse strain engineered to produce human antibodies in the place of mouse antibodies by introduction of magabase-sized fragments of the human heavy and kappa light chain loci into the germ line of mice deficient in mouse antibody production Hybridomas were shown to be stable and to produce significant levels of human monoclonal antibodies
What are Naked antibodies directed towards?
CD20 and CD52
What is Rituximab (Rituxan) used for?
Used to treat B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and some other diseases. It is a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen, found on B cells
What is Alemtuzumab (Campath) used for?
is an antibody against the CD52 antigen, which is present on both B cells and T cells, It is used to treat some patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia