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92 terms

AP World 23, 24, 25, & 26

Which of the following groupings of early societies and their rivers is correct?
A) Mesopotamia—Tigris and Euphrates; Egypt—Indus; Harappan—Nile; China—Huang He
B) Mesopotamia—Nile; Egypt—Tigris and Euphrates; Harappan—Indus; China—Huang He
C) Mesopotamia—Tigris and Euphrates; Egypt—Nile; Harappan—Huang He; China—Indus
D) Mesopotamia—Tigris and Euphrates; Egypt— Nile; Harappan—Indus; China—Huang He
E) Mesopotamia—Tigris and Euphrates; Egypt—Nile; Harappan—Indus; China—Yangzi
This following passage from the Upanishads explains what Hindu concept? "According as a man acts and walks in the path of life, so he becomes. He that does good becomes good; he that does evil becomes evil."
A) dharma
B) samsara
C) varna
D) karma
E) moksha
The biggest military advantage of the Indo-Europeans was
A) their horses.
B) their use of bronze weapons.
C) their use of iron weapons.
D) their use of battering rams.
E) their camels.
Who were the Aryans?
Historians now believe that possible causes for the decline of the Harappan society include
I. Aryan invasions.
II. ecological degradation.
III. natural disasters.

A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) II and III only
E) I, II, and III
Evidence, relating to trade, indicates that Harappan India
A) was isolated and did not trade.
B) traded exclusively with China.
C) traded exclusively with Egypt.
D) imported substantially more than it exported.
E) traded with Mesopotamia and Egypt.
The Bantu probably began their migrations because of
A) invasions from the Mediterranean basin.
B) a conscious desire for conquest.
C) the threat of epidemic disease.
D) a desire to spread their monotheistic faith.
E.)population pressures.
By spreading their language across a huge stretch of Africa, the Bantu played a role similar to that played by the
A) Indo-Europeans.
B) Assyrians.
C) Xiongnu.
D) Visigoths.
Besides the Hebrews, the only other example of monotheism from the ancient world occurred during the reign of
A) Akhenaten.
B) Sargon of Akkad.
C) Hammurabi.
D) Tuthmosis III.
E) Asho
In which of the following societies did women enjoy the most freedom and opportunity?
A) Mesopotamia
B) Egypt
C) Hebrew
E. India
Iron metallurgy was introduced into Mesopotamia by the
A) Hebrews.
B) Hittites.
C) Phoenicians.
D) Egyptians.
The first people in the world to use wheeled vehicles were the
A) Sumerians
B) Assyrians
C) Egyptians
D) Hittites
Which early Mesopotamian society built the largest empire?
A) Sumerians
B) Babylonians
C) Hittites
D) Akkadians
E) Assyrians.
While Hammurabi's code was based on the concept of retaliation lex talionis, it was also shaped by
A) social standing.
B) the will of the Mesopotamian gods as expressed by the priestly class.
C) the language spoken by the accused perpetrator.
D) the age of the accused perpetrator.
E)the religion of the victim.
The creator of the first empire in Mesopotamia was
A) Hammurabi.
B) Moses.
C) Sargon of Akkad.
D) Gilgamesh.
The word Semitic refers to
A) a theocratic governmental form.
B) a language type.
C) a monotheistic belief system.
D) a plant originating in Sumer in Mesopotamia.
E) a simplified style of writing
The word Mesopotamia means
A) the "pure land."
B) the "land of the strong."
C) "the blood of Gilgamesh."
D) "wedged-shaped."
E) "the land between the rivers."
.Cities differed from Neolithic villages in two principal ways. First, cities were larger and more complex than Neolithic villages. The second difference was that
A) cities required a surplus food production.
B) cities influenced the economic, political, and cultural life of large regions.
C) cities were less advanced militarily.
D) cities had populations in the thousands.
E)cities had protective deities.
Which Crusades reached the Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Holy Land?
A) the First Crusade only
B) The Second Crusade Only
C) the Third Crusade Only
D) The First and Third Crusades only
E) the First, Third, and Fourth Crusades
Based on the description of the Great Khan's response to the pope's emissary, the Great Khan's reaction could most accurately be described as
A) tolerance.
B) resentment.
C) enthusiasm.
D) envy.
E) hostility.
The invasions of the nomadic Turkish and Mongol tribes between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries
A) left nothing but devastation in their wake.
B) facilitated greater cross-cultural communication and integration.
C) led to the rise of a centralized imperial state that ran from China to Persia.
D) was brought to an end by increasingly powerful European states.
E) was inspired by their devotion to Islam.
In regards to gender issues in sub-Saharan Africa,
A) the position of women was essentially the same as other societies of the time.
B) women played the dominant role in society.
C) women played a strictly subservient role.
D) women had more opportunities open to them than their counterparts in other societies.
E) women were valued for their abilities as mystics and entertainers more than their ability to bear children and keep the home
The last surviving Islamic outpost in Spain was
A) Castille.
B) Aragon.
C) Granada.
D) Portugal.
E) Baleric Islands.
The only one of the crusades that managed to achieve its goal of recapturing Jerusalem was the
A) First Crusade.
B) Second Crusade.
C) Third Crusade.
D) Fourth Crusade.
E)Sixth Crusade.
The Crusades
A) stopped all trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean because of the constant state of war.
B) had virtually no impact on trade whatsoever.
C) increased trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean.
D) led to a slight decline in trade in the Mediterranean.
E) introduced the Black Death into Europe.
The influence of the Maya on the Toltec can be seen in the similarities between Tula and the Maya city of
A) Tenochtitlan.
B) Teotihuacan.
C) Cuzco.
D) Cahokia.
E) Chichén Itzá.
In regards to political structure, the Aztec empire
A) developed a remarkably sophisticated bureaucracy.
B) never developed an elaborate bureaucracy or administration.
C) possessed a bureaucracy very similar to the Inca empire.
D) was ruled by a priestly theocratic state.
E)developed a proto-democratic institution known as the Five Hundred.
The primary role of women in Mexica society
A) was to serve as attendants in temples dedicated to the warrior cult.
B) was to serve as priestesses in the mysterious Chavin cult.
C) was to serve as unofficial political and social leaders while the men served as warriors.
D) was to bear children.
E) increased when the men were away at war, much as with ancient Sparta.
The capital of the Aztec empire was
A) Tenochtitlan.
B) Teotihuacan.
C) Tula.
D) Chichen Itza.
E) Cuzco.
The cultural and religious traditions of the Australian aborigines
A) spread throughout Australia as the aborigines conquered.
B) died out completely before the arrival of the Europeans.
C) eventually spread to the islands of Oceania.
D) did not diffuse much beyond their own regions.
E) were surprisingly similar to that of the ancient Aryans.
The sharia
A) were Islamic mystics who traveled the trade routes.
B) prescribed religious observances and social rules according to the Quran.
C) was the Persian term for the monsoon winds.
D) prescribed the rules of holy war against infidels.
E) were Mongol scouts who employed terror tactics against enemies.
Ibn Battuta was asked to serve in administrative posts for rulers during his travels because
A) it was a convenient way to hold him hostage.
B) he were suspected of spying.
C) he was on a diplomatic mission for the caliph.
D) his knowledge of trade routes was extensive.
E) his expertise as an Islamic scholar was in demand.
Which of the following was a hallmark of Hongwu's rule?
A) adoption of Buddhism as the state religion
B) expulsion of the mandarins from the forbidden city
C) reestablishment of the civil service system
D) a more decentralized governmental form
E) reduction in the utilization of eunuchs
The rise of powerful states in Europe in the fifteenth century was dependent upon
A) the reestablishment of imperial power and unification.
B) the combination of new taxes and large standings armies.
C) the European invention of gunpowder and cannon.
D) papal leadership in a new round of crusades that gave purpose and inspiration for the Europeans.
E) the leadership of a united, powerful Italy.
Western European humanist philosophers believed that
A) people should withdraw from the world and dedicate themselves to prayer.
B) the thought of the middle ages was much more pure than the scandalous ideas of the Renaissance.
C) people could lead morally virtuous lives while participating in the world.
D) the ideals of the Greeks and Romans should be shunned because they were pagan.
E) intellectual and moral excellence was dependent on a Byzantine model.
The vast majority of slaves in the Atlantic economy
A) died during the middle passage.
B) were employed in the mines of Central and South America.
C) became domestic servants.
D) were trained for simple, bureaucratic work.
E) provided agricultural labor on plantations
The most important American crop introduced into Africa in the 16th century was
A) potatoes.
B) tomatoes.
C) manioc.
D) peanuts.
E) wheat.
As part of the triangular trade, Europeans usually picked up slaves in Africa in return for
A) firearms.
B) sugar or molasses.
C) silver from the Americas.
D) European technological innovations.
E) indentured servants.
One of the factors that made African slavery different from the varieties practiced elsewhere was that
A) African slavery was much more brutal than any other form of slavery.
B) African slavery began much later than slavery in the rest of the world.
C) African slavery was practiced almost entirely for religious rather than financial reasons.
D) African law did not recognize private property and thus slaves served as a measure of personal wealth.
E) African slavery did not survive very long.
Throughout most of history, the majority of slaves came from
A) religious obligations to traditional, usually animistic, gods.
B) traditional outcast portions of society.
C) the poor who were forced to sell themselves into servitude to repay huge debts.
D) renegade members of the royal family.
E) war captives.
All of the following was were accomplishments of the Fulani EXCEPT
A) they promoted the spread of Islam from the cities to the countryside.
B) they founded powerful states in Senegal, Mali, and northern Nigeria.
C) they established schools to study the Quran.
D) they strengthened Islam in sub-Saharan Africa.
E) they eliminated the traditional elements of syncretic Islam.
Islam and Christianity spread into sub-Saharan Africa
A) because of the failure of Judaism to capture a larger audience.
B) as a result of military conquest.
C) as syncretic versions of the original religious tradition.
D) as a mixture of Islamic and Christian concepts.
E) as religions adopted by runaway slaves.
The center of Islamic learning in West Africa was
A) Gao.
B) Timbuktu.
C) Jenne.
D) Zimbabwe.
E) Mbanza.
Vasco da Gama played a central role in the collapse of
A) the Songhay empire.
B) the kingdom of Kanem-Bornu.
C) the Swahili city-states.
D) the Mali empire.
E) the Ndongo kingdom.
An alliance with Portugal brought wealth and recognition to Kongo as well as
A) the right to control the slave trade.
B) an inroad into European politics.
C) an alliance with the English.
D) the eventual destruction of the kingdom.
E) diplomatic recognition from the pope
The first trading post was built in South Africa by the
A) Portuguese.
B) Spanish.
C) Dutch.
D) English.
E) French.
The British initially made use of Australia
A) because of its rich silver mines.
B) because of its extraordinary agricultural abundance.
C) as a busy port on the route from Acapulco to Manila.
D) as a penal colony.
E) as a tourist retreat.
In the English colonies, a higher percentage of women settlers ensured that the migrants mainly married amongst themselves. This is similar to which colonial area in Latin America?
A) Mexico
B) Peru
C) Brazil
D) Quebec
E) Paraguay
All of the following were differences between the Spanish approach to colonization and that of the English and French EXCEPT
A) private investors played a much greater role in the English and French approach.
B) the English and French viewed the indigenous populations as their equals.
C) the English and French did not encounter large, centralized states.
D) the Spanish saw the Americas as a land to exploit rather than one to settle or colonize.
E) Iberian explorers had royal backing.
The Portuguese began to show much more interest in Brazil
A) after the establishment of profitable sugar plantations.
B) after the English victory over the Spanish Armada.
C) after brazil wood became a major cash crop.
D) after the conclusion of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
E) after the discovery of rich gold and silver mines
Spanish colonists who were born in Europe were known as
A) metis.
B) peninsulares.
C) mestizos.
D) encomiendas.
E) conquistadores.
In Latin America, the conquistadores
A) established empires in Central and South America that lasted until the 18th century.***
B) lost control as a result of a war between the followers of Cortes and Pizarro.
C) eventually lost control to administrators of the Spanish Crown.
D) died of the same smallpox epidemic that killed native Americans.
E) were eventually defeated and removed by the English.
The Ptolemaic view of the universe was based on
A) the idea that the earth rest on the back of a giant turtle.
B) a motionless earth surrounded by nine hollow spheres.
C) a heliocentric structure.
D) the unifying principle of gravity.
E) the observations of Galileo.
The theory of universal gravity was developed by
A) Francis Bacon.
B) Denis Diderot.
C) Nicolaus Copernicus.
D) Galileo Galilei.
E) Isaac Newton.
The most important consequence of the Peace of Westphalia was
A) laying the foundation for English control of Europe.
B) the unification of the Spanish and French thrones.
C) the establishment of a system of sovereign and equal European states.
D) an end to major warfare in early modern Europe.
E) establishing an Anglo-French alliance that would last until World War I.
All of the following were policies pursued by Louis XIV EXCEPT
A) the maintenance of a huge standing army.
B) an attempt to make the nobles an active part of the government.
C) recruitment of the middle class as state officials.
D) the creation of the palace at Versailles.
E) economic development.
Which of the following states developed constitutional states in the seventeenth century?
A) England and France
B) Spain and the Netherlands
C) Russia and Italy
D) the Netherlands and France
E) England and the Netherlands
Which of the following states developed constitutional states in the seventeenth century?
A) England and France
B) Spain and the Netherlands
C) Russia and Italy
D) the Netherlands and France
E) England and the Netherlands
All of the following were part of Peter the Great's policy of westernization EXCEPT
A) political liberalization and democratic reforms.
B) creation of a modern military.
C) sending Russians to Europe for education.
D) encouraging men to shave beard and adopt western dress.
E) the construction of a new seaport on the Baltic Sea.
The first great philosophical proponent of free market capitalism was
A) Voltaire.
B) John Locke.
C) Montesquieu.
D) Adam Smith.
E) Cardinal Richelieu.
Henry VIII's reformation in England
A) borrowed ideas from the Anabaptists.
B) was inspired by John Calvin's theocracy in Geneva.
C) ignored Luther and sought accommodation within the Catholic Church.
D) made much more profound changes than Luther's reformation.
E) was much more politically motivated than Luther's reformation.
The religious struggle in Europe between Catholics and Protestants resulted in
A) an eventual total Catholic victory.
B) a Protestant victory.
C) cultural fragmentation into a largely Protestant north and a Catholic south.
D) a compromise which limited the power of kings.
E) the consolidation of the Holy Roman Empire under papal authority.
From 1500 to 1800, the largest contingent of migrants consisted of
A) enslaved Africans.
B) Hindu Indians fleeing religious persecution.
C) northern Europeans seeking economic opportunity in the Americas.
D) Chinese peasant families fleeing recurring outbreaks of disease.
E) southern Europeans seeking political freedom in the Americas.
In the long term, the Columbian exchange
A) brought a lasting decline in population because of the ravages of diseases such as smallpox.
B) had very little influence on world population figures.
C) led to economic instability because of a glut of Chinese silver.
D) barely broke even financially.
E) increased world population because of the spread of new food crops.
Russian merchants and explorers began their expansion into Siberia in the quest for
A) gold.
B) silver.
C) diamonds.
D). furs.
E) all of the above.
The center of Spanish commercial activity in Asia was
A) Melaka.
B) Bombay.
C) Manila.
D) Batavia.
E) Nagasaki.
The country that finished the Seven Years War with global hegemony was
A) England.
B) Holland.
C) Spain.
D) Portugal.
E) France.
Hormuz, Goa and Melaka were all seized in the early 1500s by
A) Vasco da Gama.
B) Afonso d'Alboquerque.
C) Francis Drake.
D) Zheng He.
E) James Cook.
The Portuguese dominance of trade was dependent on their ability to
A) force the native populations to convert to Christianity.
B) form alliances with Chinese princes to take advantage of the large Chinese navy.
C) force merchant ships to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties.
D) conquer territories and bring them permanently into their growing empire.
E) take advantage of their huge population to overwhelm their adversaries.
In their attempt to control the spice trade in the Indian Ocean the Europeans
A) achieved a virtual monopoly.
B) formed an alliance with southern Indian princes.
C) were never able to displace the Chinese monopoly.
D) forced spice traders back to the land-based Silk Roads.
E) met with limited success because of a lack of manpower.
The explorer who led three scientific expeditions into the Pacific in the 18th century was
A) Francis Drake.
B) Prince Henry the Navigator.
C) Vasco da Gama.
D). James Cook.
E) Ferdinand Magellan.
The profitable merchandise that Vasco da Gama brought back from Asia was
A) gold and silver.
B) cinnamon and pepper.
C) slaves and weapons.
D) sugar and cotton.
E) silk and porcelain.
Lateen sails had the advantage of
A) allowing for faster travel than anything available in the Islamic world.
B) working better in cross-winds.
C) being so colorful that they could be seen from many miles away.
D) being able to take full advantage of a wind blowing from behind.
E) being cheaper because their basic component was jute.
All of the following were reasons for the European interest in finding a maritime trade route EXCEPT
A) the spread of the bubonic plague made the silk roads more dangerous.
B) Mongol domination had caused trade along the Silk Roads to stop.
C) the high prices charged by Muslim merchants.
D) the demand in Europe for items such as Indian pepper and Chinese ginger.
E) the desire to expand the boundaries of Christianity.
The first European nation to dominate trade with Asia was
A) England.
B) Spain.
C) Portugal.
D) France.
E) Italy.
All of the following were motivations for European exploration EXCEPT
A) the desire to conquer China and India.
B) the search for basic resources.
C) the desire to establish new trade routes to Asian markets.
D) the desire to spread Christianity.
E) the search for lands suitable for cultivation.
The royal palace shown above is known as
A) The Forbidden City.
B) Versailles.
C) The Vatican.
D) Fatehpur Sikri.
E) Topkapi.
What does the quote above reveal about Columbus?
A) That he was partially loyal to the Mongol Khans.
B) That his beliefs, both about the resources and location of the Caribbean Islands, were grossly inaccurate.
C) That he was concerned more about material wealth than about spreading Christianity.
D) That he placed a high priority on establishing friendship with the natives over trading with them.
E) He was barely literate.
The quote above is a critique of which economic theory?
A) Mercantilism
B) Laissez-Faire
C) Capitalism
D) Socialism.
E) Communism
Whose philosophy is expressed in the quote above?
A) Confucius
B) Matteo Ricci
C) John Locke
D) Adam Smith
E) Ibn Khaldun
The tone of this selection suggests that King Alphonso regards the King of Portugal as
A) a friendly ally
B) a vassal
C) a relative
D) an enemy.
E) a god
"by some of the crew, and I was now persuaded that I had gotten into a world of bad spirits and that they were going to kill me."

This quote above is most likely from
A) an abolitionist.
B) an African.
C) a freed slave.
D) an autobiography.
E) all of the above.
the societies shown in the colored regions on the map above
A) had economies based on the gold-salt trade.
B) resisted European domination well into the 18th century.
C) were highly centralized monarchies.
D) adopted Islam as their official religion.
E) participated in the slave trade.
The prevailing winds used by Zheng He to reach India were
I. tradewinds.
II. westerlies.
III. monsoons.

A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) I and II only
E) I, II, and III
The first New World colony to specialize in sugar production was
A) New Spain.
B) Brazil.
C) Louisiana.
D) Guiana.
E) Cuba.
The largest center(s) of silver exports in the New World was (were)
I. Conception.
II. Potosi.
III. Zacatecas.
IV. Quebec.

A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) II and III only
E) I and IV only
pictured above is a Christian West African king receiving a delegation of Europeans. Which of the following African kingdoms is most likely represented in the illustration above?
A) Ghana
B) Mali
C) Songhay
D) Angola
E) Kongo
The spread of Mongol control
A) laid the foundation for a surge in long distance trade.
B) resulted in a slow but permanent decline in trade.
C) stopped all trade along the old Silk Roads immediately.
D) had little impact on trade at all.
Their arms are bows and arrows, sword and mace; but above all the bow, for they are capital archers, indeed the best that are known . . . When they are going on a distant expedition that take no gear with them except two leather bottles for mild, a little earthen ware pot to cook their meat in, and a little tent to shelter them from rain . . . Their horses are trained so perfectly that they will double hither and thither, just like a dog, in a way that is quite astonishing...In truth, they are stout and valiant soldiers, and inured by war."

This quote is referring to whom?
A) Crusaders
B) Ottomans
C) Berbers
D) Mongols
E) Janissaries
The English, French, and Dutch
A) were like the Spanish in that they viewed the Americas as a land to exploit rather than a place to settle.
B) did not play a role in the Americas until the mid-18th century.
C) never showed any serious interest in the Americas.
D) discovered gold and silver mines that rivaled the Spanish claims.
E) were more interested in setting up permanent colonies than the Spanish were
The most important factor in explaining the Spanish victory over the Aztecs and Incas was
A) the overwhelming Spanish superiority in guns ans cannons
B) the devastating loss of life caused by smallpox
C) the Spanish strength in numbers
D) the military precision of the well-trained Spanish troops
E) the Spanish alliance with the Maya
The New World colonies whose economies were based primarily upon fur-trading were
I. Spanish.
II. Portuguese.
III. French.
IV. British.

A) I and II onl
B) III and IV only
C) I, II, and III only
D) I, II, III, and IV