Chapter 2 - Evaluating Health Claims

scientific method
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What is the best form of experiment?double blinded randomized cross overProblems with experimentation- time or latency - ethicsalternatives to live animal/human testing:tissue cultures, computer modellingWhat is epidemiology?use of population data without intervention; observation onlyWhat are factors that can allow one to consider an association to be causal?- strength of association - dose-response - consistency - temporally correct - specificity - biological plausibilityEpidemiological exampleJohn Snow proved cholera spreads through contaminated waterWhere does clinical evidence come from?experience of clinicians - physicians, dentists, chiropractors, psychologists, athletic trainers etc.Personal vs Anecdotal?Personal: your own personal experiences vs. anecdotal: story from someone elseHow to know if health information is valid?source? date? author? evidence? bias? logic?Canada's health care system timeline1948: started by premier of Sask. Tommy Douglas 1957: insurance plan for physician services added 1964: fed. gov. pays for part of plan 1972: all provinces joined plan 1985: Medical Care Act replaces Canada Health ActWhat are the 5 principles of the Canada Health Act?- public administration: must be administered on a non-profit basis - comprehensiveness: must cover all insured services provided by hospitals/physicians, dental service in a hospital - universality: residents entitled to any health insurance services provided in their province/territory - portability: if canadian resident moves to another province, old plan covers services until new one is in place - accessibility: access must be provided when and where available, no discrimination of age, health, financesHealth care providersdoctors, nurses, nurse practitionersPatients have the (medical) rights to:- access their records & have them kept private (illegal for them to be accessed outside of Canada) - receive treatment providing a reasonable degree of care - know of potential dangers/benefits of treatment - receive competent diagnosis and treatment - retain control and dignity of person - designate someone to make your decisions if you cannot - informed consentPhysician requirements- graduate from accredited med school & at least 8 years of post secondary - pass an exam administered by the Medical Council of Canada and by each province's medical council - finish an internship w requirements set by College of physicians and surgeons in each province - pay a licence fee to the college of physicians and surgeons