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the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems
causes and other factors that influence the occurrence of disease and other health-related events
Public Health Surveillance
ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data to help guide public health decision making and action
ability of the program to produce the intended results minimum expenditure of time and resources
a set of standard criteria used for classifying whether a person has a particular disease, syndrome, or other health condition
Type of epidemiology which only covers time place and time to describe an outbreak rather than case definition, person, place, time, and causes/risk factors/modes of transmission
The type of epidemiology turned to to test hypotheses formed with information acquired through descriptive epidemiology
Form of analytic epidemiology which tests hypotheses in a very controlled environment
Type of analytic study in which the epidemiologist simply observes the exposure and disease status of each participant. (Cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional)
Epidemiologist tracks whether or not the participant is exposed and then tracks them to see if they develop the disease. It is the most reliable form of analytic study, but most expensive and time-consuming.
A study which monitors exposure first, then looks forward to see if disease is developed.
starts with people already diseased, then traces back to see if they had been exposed
enroll people with disease and use people without the disease. they then compare previous exposures between the two groups
the stage of subclinical disease extending from the time of exposure to onset of disease symptoms for infectious diseases
the stage of subclinical disease extending from the time of exposure to onset of disease symptoms for chronic disease
Spectrum of disease
the disease process resulting in illness which is mild, severe, or fatal and eventually ends in recovery, disability, or death
spray with relatively large, short-range aerosols produced by sneezing, coughing, or even talking
the transfer of an infectious agent from a reservoir to a host by suspended air particles, inanimate objects, or vectors
transmission occurs when infectious agents are carried by dust or droplet nuclei suspended in air
suggests that if a high enough proportion of individuals in a population are resistant to an agent, then those few who are susceptible will be protected by the resistant majority since the pathogen will be unlikely to "find those few susceptible individuals
the constant presence and or usual prevalence of a disease or infectious agent in a population within a geographic area
common source outbreak
an outbreak in which a group of persons are all exposed to an infectious agent or toxin from the same source
point source outbreak
if the group is exposed over a relatively brief period, so everyone who becomes ill does so in on incubation period, then the common source outbreak is further classified as a point source outbreak
continuous common-source outbreak
common source outbreaks in which patients have been exposed over a period of days, weeks, or longer
an epidemic with features of both a common-source outbreak and a propagated outbreak
a measure of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population over a specified period of time
conveys a sense of speed with which disease occurs in a population, and seems to imply that this pattern has occurred and will continue to occur for the foreseeable future
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