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Congress of Vienna

Meeting in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability and settle diplomatic disputes.


opposed revolutionary goals; advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church


stressed limited state interference in individual life; representation of properties people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments


advocated broader voting rights that liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes

Greek Revolution

Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.

Reform Bill of 1832

Legislation passes in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain

Chartist movement

Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the bote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyound the Reform Bill of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed

Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914

The unification of Italy and Germany created new rivalries in western Europe. European countries developed new functions for governments, responding to industrial pressures, including socialism

Louis Pasteur

French scientist who discovered relationship between germs and disease in the 19th century, leading to better sanitation.

Bemjamin Disraeli

Leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics.

Count Camillo di Cavour

Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmontese king

Otto Von Bismark

Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes

America Civil War

Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the US and reunification of North and South.


Political system in late19th century Italy the promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo

social question

issues relating to repressed classes in western Europe dueing the Industrial Revolution, particularly workers and women; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870


political movement with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man

Karl Marx

the German socialist who blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship


socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social class could be achieved gradually through political institutions

feminist movements

sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle class women; active in western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960's

women in the Industrial Revolution

the West's industrial revolution changed the situation of women in many ways; it expanded women's education opportunities, allowed them to take on more demanding tasks outside of the home and women began to protest for/against causes they believed in.

results of the industrial revolution

population levels became stable, with low birth rates and low death rates. Children became a source of emotional satisfaction for families (not as workers for the family, as in the past). People began to be able to afford things such as newspapers and vacations, diets improved, health got better.

who was the seven years war between

prussia and austria

Explain the battle of Koinggratz

prussia defeats Austria; main cause is that prussia has the needle gun allowing them to load from the back rather than the front

Treaty of Prague

1. Venetia is given to the Italians
2. German confederation is abolished
3. Austria must pay taxes (don't lose any land)

Franco-Prussian War

If south German states are attacked the Prussians will unify their army

Ems Telegram

Bismarck edits it and makes it look like the french are trying to bully German states; Napoleon III declares war

Battle of Sedan

Napoleon III is captured and Paris is besieged

Second Reich

made in Versailles Wilhelm I is made king of the unified Germany and Bismarck was made chancellor


part of land that was annexed; originally french but taken by germans

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