7.3 Politics in the Gilded Age

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III. POLITICS INNTHE GILDED AGE!
III. POLITICS INNTHE GILDED AGE!
OBJECTIVE: Discuss and explain about the peoples and organizations that controlled the nation's major cities and how reformers tried to end corruption.
OBJECTIVE: Discuss and explain about the peoples and organizations that controlled the nation's major cities and how reformers tried to end corruption.
THE EMERGENCE OF POLITICAL MACHINES!
HOW DID POLITICAL MACHINES CONTROL CITIES?
THE EMERGENCE OF POLITICAL MACHINES!
HOW DID POLITICAL MACHINES CONTROL CITIES?
political machines
During the late 1800s, many cities were run by THESE organized groups, headed by a city boss, that controlled the activities of a political party.
votes
Political machines offered services to people and businesses in exchange for THIS.
police, fire, sanitation
The boss controlled city government, as well as THESE type of jobs.
licenses
Bosses also controlled city agencies that granted THESE to businesses, and funded construction projects.
immigrants
By controlling the cities' finances, and by solving the problems for voters, bosses won loyalty and influence.
Furthermore, many bosses had been THESE themselves and worked their way up in politics.
MUNICIPAL GRAFT AND SCANDAL!
HOW WERE POLITICAL BOSSES CORRUPT?
MUNICIPAL GRAFT AND SCANDAL!
HOW WERE POLITICAL BOSSES CORRUPT?
graft
Political machines provided city dwellers with vital services. But as they gained power, many bosses became corrupt. They became rich through THIS, or illegal use of political influence or political gain.
kickbacks
THIS illegal practice included illegal payments to politicians. Workers on city construction projects would charge a higher price for their service and then "?" part of the fee to the bosses, who were also taking bribes from businesses in return for allowing illegal or unsafe activities.
Tammany Hall
On of the most powerful political bosses was William Marcy Tweed, known as Boss tweed.
He became the head of THIS, New York's City's most powerful Democratic political machine.
Thomas Nast
HE was a political cartoonist who made fun of Tweed in newspapers. Eventually, the public grew outraged by Tweed's corrupt practices. Authorities broke up the Tweed ring in 1871. Tweed and many of his followers were sentenced to prison.
CIVIL SERVICE REPLACES PATRONAGE!
HOW WAS CIVIL SERVICE REFORMED?
CIVIL SERVICE REPLACES PATRONAGE!
HOW WAS CIVIL SERVICE REFORMED?
patronage
For many decades presidents had complained about THIS problem of giving government jobs to people of the same party who had helped a candidate get elected.
As a result many unqualified and corrupt workers were hired.
civil service
reformers wanted to end the patronage system. They called for a merit system, in which jobs in civil service and government administration would go to the most qualified people, regardless of their political views.
Rutherford B. Hayes
1876-1880
THIS president attempted to reform civil service, but when some members of the Republican party objected, HE did not seek reelection in 1880.
Rutherford B. Hayes
1876-1880
stalwarts
The party quickly divided over the issue of patronage hiring.
THEY opposed changed in the patronage system.
The reformers supported changing the system.
James A. Garfield
1880-1881
The Republican party quickly settled on THIS independent candidate, who won the presidential election but turned out to have ties with reformers.
Charles Guiteau
Shortly after being elected he was shot twice on July 2, 1881 and later died on September 19, 1881 by THIS American preacher, writer, lawyer, and Stalwart.
Chester A. Arthur
1881-1884
Garfield's vice-president succeeded him. Despite being a Stalwart, Arthur turned reformer when he became president.
Chester A. Arthur
1881-1884
Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
As a reformer, Arthur pushed through THIS civil-service bill in 1883. This Act created a civil-service commission to give government jobs based on merit, not politics.
It helped reform the civil-service.
wealthy
Now that politicians had no jobs to offer, they had trouble seeking money from supporters.
As a result, some politicians turned to THESE leaders for financial support instead.
This strengthened the ties between government and business.
BUSINESS BUYS INFLUENCE!
WHAT HAPPENED TO TARIFFS?
BUSINESS BUYS INFLUENCE!
WHAT HAPPENED TO TARIFFS?
tax
Political reformers of the late 19th century also addressed the issue of tariffs.
A tariff is a THIS placed on goods going into or out of the country.
'U.S. industries/businesses
Most Americans believed that tariffs were necessary to protect THIS from foreign competition. But tariffs did cause prices to rise.
Grover Cleveland
1884-1888
For 12 years tariffs were a key issue in presidential elections. THIS president, a Democrat, tried, but failed to lower the tariffs.
Benjamin Harrison
1888-1892
McKinley Tariff Act 1890
In 1890,THIS Republican President, who was supported by big business, signed THIS ACT into law, raising tariffs to their highest level ever.
Benjamin Harrison
1888-1892
McKinley Tariff Act 1890
Grover Cleveland
1892-1896
HE defeated Harrison in in 1892 but was unable to lower the tariffs.

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