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Chapter 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism Main Ideas
Terms in this set (6)
What were the common crises and achievements of the 17th century European states?
- the "Great Chain of Being": monarchs, clergy, nobles, peasants and artisans.
- little ice age caused famine which lead to starvation, malnutrition, and death.
- most people died of diseases not starvation (i.e. Smallpox and typhoid).
- industry suffered: woolen textiles declined.
- high food prices.
- wages stagnated (did not increase/develop/progress)
- a lot of people were unemployed.
- economic crisis struck in different regions at different times.
- the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648): war due to religious disputes, 4 phases (Bohemian phase, Danish phase, the Swedish phase, and the French phase
- Peace of Westphalia (1648)
- destroyed Central European economy and society: many people lost their land, allowing nobles to enlarge their estates and consolidate their control/power.
- government raised taxes = riots
- absolutist governments: France, Spain, Central Europe, and Russia
- constitutionalism governments: England and the Dutch
- common projects/goals: protecting and expanding their frontiers, raising new taxes, consolidating central control, and competing for the new colonies opening up in the New and Old World.
- army size grew along with professionalization.
What factors led to the rise of the French absolutist state under Louis XIV, and why did absolutist Spain experience decline in the same period?
- Henry the Great tried to keep peace in France.
- he lowered taxes and charged royal officials instead to guarantee the right to pass their positions down to their heirs, improved canals and roads after the civil war.
- he was murdered by a Catholic zealot.
- Louis XIV chose nobles to be part his council.
- Colbert: was Louis' controller general, financial genius,
- Spain had a decline in American silver and had weak leadership.
What were the social conditions of Eastern Europe, and how did the rulers of Austria and Prussia transform their nations into powerful absolutist monarchies?
- land lords had all the power over regions.
- lords played the role of the local prosecutor, judge, and jailer.
- Ferdinand II gave Protestant land to loyal Catholic nobles.
- Habsburg's had control over Bohemia.
- peasant conditions worsened. (3 days a week of unpaid labor).
- Protestantism was not allowed.
- took over Hungarian land.
- Hungarians revolted but they came to an agreement: Hungarians kept their privileges as long as they accepted Habsburg rule.
- Frederick William, the "Great Elector" wanted an army. He persuaded Junkers to accept taxation w/o consent in exchange for them to keep their privileges. (I.e. Have authority over serfs).
- Frederick William I, the "Soldiers' King" eliminated the last traces of parliamentary estates and local self governing.
- Made Prussia into an army based land.
- every man had to undergo army training.
- some men fled to avoid going into the army.
- made Prussia absolutists.
What were the distinctive features of Russian and Ottoman absolutism?
- Unsure if Russia was a western or non-western European society.
- Mongol Empire: from Korea to Eastern Europe.
- Ivan the Great: successfully expanded Moscow towards Baltic Sea.
- boyars: highest ranking members of Russian nobility.
- Ivan the Terrible: chaos in Russia, defeated remaining Mongol lands.
- landlords had power over everyone.
- strengthened their army. They required nobles to join the army.
- service of commoners increased.
- nobles had to shave their heads and wear western clothing.
- refugee for Muslims, Jews, and some Christians fleeing form the Inquisition and religious wars.
- agricultural land belonged to the sultan.
- sultan: ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
- slaves payed taxes to use agricultural land.
- Muslims could not enslave other Muslims.
- young slaves were trained to fight and to administer. They could rise in the bureaucracy.
- janissary corps: core of sultan's army. Could not rank up.
- millet system: land was separated into religious communities each self governing themselves.
- millet's duties: collect taxes, regulate group behavior, maintained law courts, schools, houses of worship, and hospitals.
- sultans on had children with concubines so their wives and their kids wouldn't have too much power.
- eunuchs cared for the females in the family because their testes were cut off so they could not have sex.
How and why did the constitutionalism state triumph in the Dutch Republic and England?
- after war England emerged into a constitutional monarchy.
- English power was divided (king vs. parliament).
What was the baroque style in art and music, and why was it so popular?
- emotional and exuberant.
- popular in Catholic countries.
- inspired by Catholic reformation.
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