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1300-1600 AD; rebirth of learning in europe


showing objects as they appear to the eye


reform/improve religious customs; great power of the roman catholic church


official pardons given by the pope in exchange for $


protestors of the Catholic church

leonardo da vinci

500 years ago; studied birds


sponsored by Lorenzo de Medici; sculpter; Paintings cover the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican in Rome

martin luther

1517 criticized the church


renaissance started here

sistine chapel

ceiling painted by michelangelo

catholic reformation

Pope Paul III worked to change church; Continued to believe that only the clergy


expert sailors


larger, stronger, easier to steer, faster ship


measured latitude from the equator


to sail completely around

henry the navigator

Prince of Portugal; opened school for mapmakers, shipbuilders, navigators from all over the world

ferdinand magellan

Set sail in 1519 with 5 ships and a crew of 250 men

cape bojador

Sailors were unwilling to sail beyond--- Fear of sea monsters; Green Sea of Darkness

strait of magellan

near the tip of South America; Took 38 days to sail through Strait; due to fierce winds and winding waterways


Italian navigator who discovered the New World

queen isabella & king ferdinand

King & Queen of spain who gave colombus the ships and sailors to sail to the new world


country Columbus was from


absolute monarchy here


reformation and renaissance started here


where was magellen killed


the people elect representatives to govern

divine right

King's rule came directly from God; God chose the king

absolute monarchy

Complete power over every aspect of his kingdom

louis XIV

known as Sun King b/c sun is the center of the universe

cardinal richelieu

served as Chief Minister to Louis XIII for 18 years

peter the great

Czar of Russia in 1682; modernized Russian Army and navy; improved farming and industry; added ports so Russia could trade by sea; limited power of nobles


Very extravagant lifestyle

sun king

sun is the center of the universe; process of absolute power was gained over 150 years by monarchs


peter the great; modernized Russian Army and navy


window to the west

elizabeth I

monarch from 1558 to 1603 who established a strong central government while respecting the rights of parliament.

magna carta

a legal document that limits the kings power and gave the nobles a larger role in the goverment


in this system, the Spanish king gave settlers large areas of land; supposed to allow the natives to work their own plots of land for food




ruler of the Aztec empire in the Valley of Mexico; very powerful; Believed gods were more powerful

hernan cortes

Leader of the pale skinned men; originally was searching for gold; rallied support of other native tribes against the Aztecs


helped gather support for hernan cortes

francisco pizzaro

conquered the Incan empire in 1533; Conquered 12 million people with an army of 200 soldiers


capital was aztec

effects of slavery on africa

disaster for Africa; wars against neighbors

kings become more powerful throughout europe

the divine rights; god chose the king; rule came directly from god


spanish muslims

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