Terms in this set (14)

a. Consuls and Praetors
chief executive officers
Two consuls, chosen annually, administered the government and led the Roman army into battle.
The praetor
created in 366 B.C.E.
was in charge of civil law
could also lead armies and govern Rome when the consuls were away from the city.
As the Romans' territory expanded, they added another praetor to judge cases in which one or both people were noncitizens.

b. The Roman senate
council of elders was a select group of about three hundred men who served for life. The senate could only advise the magistrates, but this advice was not taken lightly and by the third century B.C.E. had virtually the force of law.

c. centuriate assembly
Organized by classes based on wealth
wealthiest citizens always had a majority. This assembly elected the chief magistrates and passed laws.

b. The Struggle of the Orders

i. Patricians versus Plebeians
Patricians great landowners, who constituted the aristocratic governing class. Only they could be con-
suls, magistrates, and senators.

plebeians constituted the considerably larger group of non-patrician large landowners, less wealthy landholders, artisans, merchants, and small farmers. Although they, too, were citizens, they did not have the same rights as the patricians.
intermarriage between patricians and plebeians was forbidden.

ii. Tribunes of the plebs
were given the power to protect plebeians against arrest by patrician magistrates. A new law allowed marriages between patricians and plebeians, and in the fourth century B.C.E., plebeians were permitted to become consuls. Finally, in 287 B.C.E., the council of the plebs received the right to pass laws for all Romans.
A. The Age of Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.)
Octavian became the first Roman emperor.
The senate awarded him the title of Augustus,
''the revered one''— had previously been reserved for gods.
The senate gave Augustus the title of imperator (im-puh-RAH-tur) (our word emperor), or commander in chief.
standing army of twenty-eight legions, or about 150,000 men
auxiliary forces, which numbered around 130,000

1. The Praetorian Guard
praetorian guard of roughly 9,000 men who had the important task of guarding the emperor.

2. Provincial Reforms
emperor, who assigned deputies known as legates to govern the provinces

The Early Empire (14-180)

1. The Julio-Claudians (14-68)
Julio-Claudian dynasty; the next four successors of Augustus were related to his family or that of his wife, Livia.
more of the responsibilities that Augustus had given to the senate tended to be taken over by the emperors,
opportunity for arbitrary and corrupt acts also increased.

2. The Five Good Emperors (96-180)
Nerva (96-98)
Trajan (98-117)
Hadrian (117-138)
Antoninus Pius (138-161)
Marcus Aurelius (161-180)

a. The Pax Romana
Pax Romana (PAKS or PAHKS ro-MAH-nuh) (the Roman peace) and the prosperity it engendered as the chief benefits of Roman rule during the first and second centuries C.E.

3. Frontiers and the Provinces
Trajan extended Roman rule into Dacia

Hadrian practiced Defensive Imperialism and withdrew Roman forces from much of Mesopotamia. he retained Dacia and Arabia, reinforced fortifications along a line connecting the Rhine and Danube Rivers and building a defensive wall 80 miles long across northern Britain to keep the Scots out of Roman Britain.

In 212, the emperor Caracalla (kar-uh-KAL-uh)
completed the process by giving Roman citizenship to every free inhabitant of the empire.

4. Prosperity in the Early Empire
Internal peace resulted in unprecedented levels of trade.
At its height (2 c.e.) It covered about 3.5 million square miles and had a population, like that of Han China, estimated at more than 50 million.
large latifundia still dominated agriculture

a. Roads and Political Stability
Developments in both the Roman and Chinese Empires helped foster the growth of this trade. Although both empires built roads chiefly for military purposes, the roads also came to be used to facilitate trade. Moreover, by creating large empires, the Romans and Chinese not only established internal stability but also pacified bordering territories, thus reducing the threat that bandits posed to traders.
1. The Influence of Greek Culture
After conquering the Hellenistic kingdoms, Roman generals shipped Greek manuscripts and artworks back to Rome. educated Greek slaves labored in Roman households. Rich Romans hired Greek tutors and sent their sons to Athens to study.

2. Roman Literature: Virgil's Aeneid
Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.). The son of a small landholder in northern Italy,the Aeneid (ih-NEE-id), an epic poem clearly intended to
rival the work of Homer. The connection between Troy
and Rome is made in the poem when Aeneas (ih-NEE-
uss), a hero of Troy, survives the destruction of that city
and eventually settles in Latium—establishing a link
between Roman civilization and Greek history. Aeneas is portrayed as the ideal Roman—his virtues are duty, piety, and faithfulness. Virgil's overall purpose was to show that Aeneas had fulfilled his mission to establish the Romans in Italy and thereby start Rome on its divine
mission to rule the world.

3. Roman Art
Greek artistic inspiration. from Greek statues
Romans' own portrait sculpture was characterized by an intense realism that included even unpleasant physical details. Wall paintings and frescoes in the homes of the rich realistically depicted landscapes, portraits, and scenes from mythological stories.

a. Architecture and Engineering
made use of colonnades and rectangular structures,
made considerable use of curvilinear forms: the arch, vault, and dome.
first people in antiquity to use concrete on a massive scale.
constructed huge buildings—public baths, such as those of Caracalla, and amphitheaters capable of seating 50,000 spectators.
a network of 50,000 miles of roads linked all parts of the empire, and in Rome, almost a dozen aqueducts kept the population of one million supplied with water.

4. Roman Law
Rome's first code of laws was the TwelveTables of 450 B.C.E., but that was designed for a simple farming society and proved inadequate for later needs

a. Natural Law
the law of nations, defined as the part of the law that applied to both Romans and foreigners. Under the influence of Stoicism, the Romans came to identify their law of nations with natural law, a set of universal laws based on reason. This enabled them to establish standards of justice that applied to all people.
A person was regarded as innocent until proved otherwise. People accused of wrong doing were allowed to defend themselves before a judge. A judge, in turn, was expected to weigh evidence carefully before arriving at a decision

5. The Roman Family
household included the wife, sons with their wives and children, unmarried daughters, and slaves.
Fathers arranged the marriages of their daughters
legal control'' passing from father to husband.
By the mid-first century B.C.E. without legal control,'' meant that married daughters officially remained within the father's legal power made possible
independent property rights that forceful women could
translate into considerable power within the household
and outside it.
Some parents in upper-class families provided education for their daughters by hiring private tutors or sending them to primary schools.
legal minimum age for marriage was twelve, although fourteen was a more common age in practice
early marriages persisted because women died at a relatively young age

a. The Paterfamilias
the dominant male, upon his death, sons or nearest male relatives assumed the role of guardians.
By the (2 C.E.) The paterfamilias no longer had absolute authority over his children; he could no longer sell his children into slavery or have them put to death. Moreover, the husband's absolute authority over his wife also disappeared, and by the late second century, upper-class Roman women had considerable freedom and independence.

6. Slaves and Their Masters
no people possessed more slaves or relied so much on slave labor as the Romans eventually did.
The rich owned the most and the best.
Greek slaves were in much demand as tutors, musicians, doctors, and artists.
Slaves were also used as farm laborers;
used as menial household workers, such as cooks, waiters, cleaners, and gardeners. Contractors used slave labor to build roads, aqueducts, and other public structures.
numerous instances of humane treatment by masters
slaves were also subject to severe punishments, torture, abuse, and hard labor that drove some to run away, despite stringent laws against aiding a runaway slave. Some slaves revolted against their owners and even murdered them, causing some Romans to live in unspoken fear of their slaves
in 73 B.C.E. Led by a gladiator named Spartacus the revolt broke out in southern Italy and involved 70,000 slaves. Spartacus managed to defeat several Roman
armies before being trapped and killed in southern Italy in 71 B.C.E. Six thousand of his followers were crucified, the traditional form of execution for slaves.

7. Imperial Rome
largest population of any city in the empire, close to one million by the time of Augustus. Only Chang'an, the imperial capital of the Han Empire in China, had a comparable population during this time.
gladiatorial shows, which took place in amphitheaters.
Colosseum, constructed in Rome to seat 50,000 spectators.
Contests to the death between trained fighters formed the central focus of these games
Crisis in the Third Century
number of natural catastrophes struck Rome.

1. Military Anarchy
For the next forty-nine years, the Roman imperial throne was occupied by anyone who had the military strength to seize it—a total of twenty-two emperors, only two of whom did not meet a violent death.

2. Invasions from the North and East
a series of invasions, no doubt exacerbated by the civil wars. In the east, the Sassanid Persians made inroads into Roman territory. Germanic tribes also poured into the empire.

3. Economic Deterioration
Invasions, civil wars, and plague came close to causing
an economic collapse of the Roman Empire in the third
decline in trade and small industry, and the labor shortage caused by the plague
fields were ravaged by invaders
monetary system began to collapse as a result of debased coinage and inflation.
the state had to hire Germans to fight
under Roman commanders

The Late Roman Empire

1. The Reforms of Diocletian (284-305) and Constantine (306-337)
extended imperial control by strengthening and expanding the administrative bureaucracies of the Roman Empire.
The army was enlarged, and mobile units were set up that could be quickly moved to support frontier troops when the borders were threatened.
Constantine's biggest project was the construction of
a new capital city in the east, on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium on the shores of the Bosporus. Eventually renamed Constantinople (modern Istanbul)
a. Building Constantinople
the city was developed for defensive reasons and had an excellent strategic location. Calling it his ''New Rome,'' Constantine endowed the city with a forum, large palaces, and a vast amphitheater.
greatly enlarged two institutions—the army and the civil service—that drained most of the public funds.
the population was not growing, so the tax base could not be expanded.
emperors issued edicts that forced people to remain in their designated vocations
large landowners took advantage of depressed agricultural conditions to enlarge their landed estates.

2. The End of the Western Empire (476)
western and eastern parts, became two independent states by 395.
in the west more and more Germans moved in and challenged Roman authority.

a. Huns and Germans
the Huns, a fierce tribe of nomads from the steppes of Asia who may have been related to the Xiongnu
(SHYAHNG-noo), the invaders of the Han Empire in China, moved into the Black Sea region. the Huns were the Visigoths who moved south and west, crossed
the Danube into Roman territory, and settled down as Roman allies. But the Visigoths soon revolted, and the Roman attempt to stop them at Adrianople in 378 led to a crushing defeat for Rome. In 410, the Visigoths sacked Rome Vandals poured into southern Spain and Africa, Visigoths into Spain and Gaul. The Vandals crossed into Italy from North Africa and ravaged Rome again in 455. By the middle of the fifth century, the western provinces of the Roman Empire had been taken over by Germanic peoples who were in the process of setting up independent kingdoms. In 476, Odoacer, a new master of the soldiers, himself of German origin, deposed the Roman emperor, the boy Romulus Augustulus. To many historians, the deposition of Romulus signaled the end of the Roman Empire in the west. Of course, this is only a symbolic date,

3. What Caused the Fall of the Western Roman Empire?
Christianity's emphasis on a spiritual kingdom undermined Roman military virtues and patriotism; traditional Roman values declined as non-Italians gained prominence in the empire;
lead poisoning caused by water pipes and cups made of lead resulted in a mental decline;
plague decimated the population;
Rome failed to advance technologically because of slavery;
Rome was unable to achieve a workable political system
Weakened by a shortage of manpower, the Roman army in the west was simply not able to fend off the hordes of people moving into Italy and Gaul.
The Roman state religion focused on the worship of a pantheon of Greco-Roman gods and goddesses, including Juno, the patron goddess of women; Minerva, the goddess of craftspeople; Mars, the god of war; and Jupiter Optimus Maximus. The Romans believed that the observance of proper ritual by state priests brought them into a right relationship with the gods, thereby guaranteeing security, peace, and prosperity, and that their success in creating an empire confirmed that they enjoyed the favor of the gods. The polytheistic Romans were extremely tolerant of other religions. beginning with Augustus, emperors were often officially made gods by the Roman senate

A. The Rise of Christianity
Roman involvement with the Jews began in 63 B.C.E., and by 6 C.E., Judaea (which embraced the old Israelite kingdom of Judah) had been made a province and placed under the direction of a Roman procurator.
the Essenes, awaited a Messiah who would save Israel from oppression, usher in the kingdom of God, and establish paradise on earth.
the Zealots, were militant extremists who advocated the violent overthrow of Roman rule.
A Jewish revolt in 66 C.E. was crushed by the Romans four years later. The Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed,
Jesus of Nazareth (c. 6 B.C.E.- c. 29 C.E.) was a Palestinian Jew who grew up in Galilee, an important center of the militant Zealots.
To the Roman authorities of Palestine Jesus was a potential revolutionary who might transform Jewish expectations of a messianic kingdom into a revolt the procurator Pontius Pilate ordered his crucifixion.

B. The Spread of Christianity
Christianity spread slowly at first. Although the teachings of early Christianity were mostly disseminated by the preaching of convinced Christians, written materials also appeared. which, by the end of the first century C.E. had become the authoritative record of Jesus's life and teachings and formed the core of the New Testament. Although Jerusalem was the first center of Christianity, its destruction by the Romans in 70 C.E. dispersed the Christians and left individual Christian churches with considerable independence. By 100, Christian churches had been established in most of the major cities of the east and in some places in the western part of the empire.
because Christians refused to worship the state gods and emperors, many Romans came to view them as harmful to the Roman state. Roman persecution of Christians in the first and second centuries was only sporadic and local, never systematic. In the second century, Christians were largely ignored as harmless (see the box on p. 131). By the end of the reigns of the five good emperors, Christians still represented a small minority, but one of considerable strength.

C. The Triumph of Christianity
first the Christian message had much to offer the Roman world. The promise of salvation, made possible by Jesus's death and resurrection, made a resounding impact on a world full of suffering and injustice
second Jesus had been a human figure, not a mythological one, and people found it easier to relate to him
sporadic persecution served to strengthen it as an institution in the second and third centuries by causing it to become more organized.
Constantine became the first Christian emperor, Christianity flourished.
The Han dynasty would later become so closely identified with the advance of Chinese civilization that even today the Chinese sometimes refer to themselves as ''people of Han'' and to their language as the ''language of Han.''
The founder of the Han dynasty was Liu Bang (lyoo
BAHNG) (Liu Pang), a commoner of peasant origin who
would be known historically by his title of Han Gaozu (HAHN gow-DZOO) (Exalted Emperor of Han; 202-195 B.C.E.) Gaozu maintained the centralized political institutions of the Qin but abandoned its harsh Legalistic approach to law enforcement.

A. Confucianism and the State
the tripartite division of the central government into civilian and military authorities and a censorate. The government was headed by a ''grand council'' including representatives from all three segments of government. The Han also retained the system of local government, dividing the empire into provinces and districts.
the Han sought to apply the Qin system of selecting government officials on the basis of merit rather than birth.
Gaozu decreed that local officials would be asked
to recommend promising candidates for public service. Thirty years later, in 165 B.C.E., the first known civil
service examination was administered to candidates for
positions in the bureaucracy. The first candidates were almost all from aristocratic or other wealthy families,
Under the Han dynasty, the population increased rapidly—by some estimates rising from about 20million to more than 60 million at the height of the dynasty

B. The Economy
adopting fiscal policies that led eventually to greater concentration of land in the hands of the wealthy.
They were aware that a free peasantry paying taxes directly to the state would both limit the wealth and power of the great noble families and increase the state's revenues.
peasants also faced a number of other exactions, including military service and forced labor of up to one month annually.
the trebling of the population under the Han eventually reduced the average size of the individual farm plot to
about one acre per capita, barely enough for survival.
many poor peasants were forced to sell their land and become tenant farmers, paying rents ranging up to half of the annual harvest.
the early Han was one of unparalleled productivity and prosperity, marked by a major expansion of trade, both domestic and foreign.
the Han were as suspicious of private merchants as their predecessors had been and levied stiff taxes on trade in an effort to limit commercial activities. Merchants were also subject to severe social constraints. They were disqualified from seeking office, restricted in their place of residence, and generally viewed as parasites providing little true value to Chinese society
The state itself directed much trade and manufacturing; it manufactured weapons, for example, and operated ship-yards, granaries, and mines.The system of roads was expanded and modernized. Unlike the Romans, however, the Han rulers relied on waterways for the bulk of their transportation needs. To supplement the numerous major rivers crisscrossing the densely populated heartland of China, new canals were dug to facilitate the moving of goods from one end of the vast empire to the other.
long-distance trade with rome was carried by sea through southern ports like Guangzhou, but more was transported by overland caravans on the Silk Road and other routes that led westward into Central Asia.
The Chinese made significant progress in such areas as textile manufacturing, water mills, and iron casting; skill at ironworking led to the production of steel a few centuries later. Paper was invented under the Han, and the development of the rudder and fore-and-aft rigging permitted ships to sail into the wind for the first

1. Imperial Expansion and the Origins of the Silk Road
Han Wudi successfully completed the assimilation into
the empire of the regions south of the Yangtze River, including the Red River delta in what is today northern Vietnam. Han armies also marched westward as far as the Caspian Sea, pacifying nomadic tribal peoples and extending China's boundary far into Central Asia
Chinese commercial exchanges with peoples in Central
Asia now began to expand dramatically. Eastward into China came grapes, precious metals, glass objects, and horses from Persia and Central Asia. Horses were of particular significance because Chinese military strategists had learned of the importance of cavalry in their battles against the Xiongnu and sought the sturdy Ferghana horses of Bactria to increase their own military effectiveness. In return, China exported goods, especially silk, to countries to the west. But two great empires at either extreme of the Eurasian supercontinent had for the first time been linked together in a commercial relationship.

2. Social Changes
The emergence of a free peasantry resulted in a strengthening of the nuclear family, which now became the prevailing social unit throughout the countryside, although the joint family—the linear descendant of the clan system in the Zhou dynasty—continued to hold sway in much of the countryside. the number of cities, mainly at the junction of rivers and trade routes, was on the increase. The largest was the imperial capital of Chang'an (CHENG-AHN), which was one of the great cities of the ancient world, rivaling Rome in magnificence. The city covered a total area of nearly 16 square miles and was enclosed by a 12-foot earthen wall surrounded by a moat. Twelve gates provided entry into the city, and eight major avenues ran east-west or north-south. Each avenue was nearly 150
feet wide; a center strip in each avenue was reserved for the emperor, whose palace and gardens occupied nearly half of the southern and central parts of the city.

3. Religion and Culture
The pantheon of popular religion was still peopled by local deities and nature spirits, some connected with popular Daoism.
the Silk Road brought the Buddhist faith to China for the first time.
new forms of expression. In literature, poetry and philosophical essays continued to be popular, but historical writing became the primary form of literary creativity. Historians such as Sima Qian (SUH-mah chee-AHN) and Ban Gu (bahn GOO) (the dynasty's official historian and the older brother of the female historian Ban Zhao) wrote works that became models for later dynastic histories
Painting—often in the form of wall frescoes became increasingly popular,
bronze was steadily being replaced by iron as the medium of choice

As frivolous or
depraved rulers amused themselves with the pleasures of
court life, the power and influence of the central government began to wane, and the great noble families filled the vacuum, amassing vast landed estates and transforming free farmers into tenants. Wang Mang tried to confiscate the great estates and abolish slavery. In so doing, however, he alienated powerful interests, who conspired to overthrow him. In 23 C.E., beset by administrative chaos and a collapse of the frontier defenses, Wang Mang was killed in a coup d'e´tat
But the monopoly of land and power by the great landed families continued. Weak rulers were isolated within their imperial chambers and dominated by powerful figures at court. Official corruption and the concentration of land in the hands of the wealthy led to widespread peasant unrest. The Han also continued to have problems with the Xiongnu beyond the Great Wall to the north. Nomadic raids on Chinese territory continued intermittently to the end of the dynasty, once
reaching almost to the gates of the capital city.
In the early third century C.E., the dynasty was finally brought to an end when power was seized by Cao Cao, a general
At its height in the second century C.E., the Roman
Empire was one of the greatest states the world had seen. It covered about 3.5 million square miles and had a population, like that of Han China, estimated at more than 50 million.

Developments in both the Roman and Chinese Empires helped foster the growth of this trade. Although both empires built roads chiefly for military purposes, the roads also came to be used to facilitate trade. Moreover, by creating large empires, the Romans and Chinese not only established internal stability but also pacified bordering territories, thus reducing the threat that bandits posed to traders.

largest population of any city in the empire, close to one million by the time of Augustus. Only Chang'an, the imperial capital of the Han Empire in China, had a comparable population during this time.

Both lasted for centuries, and both were extremely successful in establishing centralized control. Both built elaborate systems of roads in order to rule efficiently and relied on provincial officials, and especially on town and cities, for local administration. In both empires, settled conditions led to a high level of agricultural production that sustained large populations, estimated at between 50 and 60 million in each empire. Although both empires expanded into areas with different languages, ethnic groups, and ways of life, they managed to extend their legal and political institutions, their technical skills, and their languages throughout their empires. The Roman and Han Empires also had similar social and economic structures. The family stood at the heart of the social structure, and the male head of the family was all-powerful. The family also inculcated the values that helped make the empires strong—duty, courage, obedience, and discipline. The wealth of both societies also depended on agriculture. Although a free peasantry provided a backbone of strength and stability in each empire, wealthy landowners were able to gradually convert the free peasants into tenant farmers and thereby ultimately to undermine the power of the imperial

Both empires were periodically beset by invasions of
nomadic peoples: the Han dynasty was weakened by the incursions of the Xiongnu, and the Western Roman Empire eventually collapsed in the face of incursions by the Germanic peoples.