1. The Influence of Greek Culture
After conquering the Hellenistic kingdoms, Roman generals shipped Greek manuscripts and artworks back to Rome. educated Greek slaves labored in Roman households. Rich Romans hired Greek tutors and sent their sons to Athens to study.
2. Roman Literature: Virgil's Aeneid
Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.). The son of a small landholder in northern Italy,the Aeneid (ih-NEE-id), an epic poem clearly intended to
rival the work of Homer. The connection between Troy
and Rome is made in the poem when Aeneas (ih-NEE-
uss), a hero of Troy, survives the destruction of that city
and eventually settles in Latium—establishing a link
between Roman civilization and Greek history. Aeneas is portrayed as the ideal Roman—his virtues are duty, piety, and faithfulness. Virgil's overall purpose was to show that Aeneas had fulfilled his mission to establish the Romans in Italy and thereby start Rome on its divine
mission to rule the world.
3. Roman Art
Greek artistic inspiration. from Greek statues
Romans' own portrait sculpture was characterized by an intense realism that included even unpleasant physical details. Wall paintings and frescoes in the homes of the rich realistically depicted landscapes, portraits, and scenes from mythological stories.
a. Architecture and Engineering
made use of colonnades and rectangular structures,
made considerable use of curvilinear forms: the arch, vault, and dome.
first people in antiquity to use concrete on a massive scale.
constructed huge buildings—public baths, such as those of Caracalla, and amphitheaters capable of seating 50,000 spectators.
a network of 50,000 miles of roads linked all parts of the empire, and in Rome, almost a dozen aqueducts kept the population of one million supplied with water.
4. Roman Law
Rome's first code of laws was the TwelveTables of 450 B.C.E., but that was designed for a simple farming society and proved inadequate for later needs
a. Natural Law
the law of nations, defined as the part of the law that applied to both Romans and foreigners. Under the influence of Stoicism, the Romans came to identify their law of nations with natural law, a set of universal laws based on reason. This enabled them to establish standards of justice that applied to all people.
A person was regarded as innocent until proved otherwise. People accused of wrong doing were allowed to defend themselves before a judge. A judge, in turn, was expected to weigh evidence carefully before arriving at a decision
5. The Roman Family
household included the wife, sons with their wives and children, unmarried daughters, and slaves.
Fathers arranged the marriages of their daughters
legal control'' passing from father to husband.
By the mid-first century B.C.E. without legal control,'' meant that married daughters officially remained within the father's legal power made possible
independent property rights that forceful women could
translate into considerable power within the household
and outside it.
Some parents in upper-class families provided education for their daughters by hiring private tutors or sending them to primary schools.
legal minimum age for marriage was twelve, although fourteen was a more common age in practice
early marriages persisted because women died at a relatively young age
a. The Paterfamilias
the dominant male, upon his death, sons or nearest male relatives assumed the role of guardians.
By the (2 C.E.) The paterfamilias no longer had absolute authority over his children; he could no longer sell his children into slavery or have them put to death. Moreover, the husband's absolute authority over his wife also disappeared, and by the late second century, upper-class Roman women had considerable freedom and independence.
6. Slaves and Their Masters
no people possessed more slaves or relied so much on slave labor as the Romans eventually did.
The rich owned the most and the best.
Greek slaves were in much demand as tutors, musicians, doctors, and artists.
Slaves were also used as farm laborers;
used as menial household workers, such as cooks, waiters, cleaners, and gardeners. Contractors used slave labor to build roads, aqueducts, and other public structures.
numerous instances of humane treatment by masters
slaves were also subject to severe punishments, torture, abuse, and hard labor that drove some to run away, despite stringent laws against aiding a runaway slave. Some slaves revolted against their owners and even murdered them, causing some Romans to live in unspoken fear of their slaves
in 73 B.C.E. Led by a gladiator named Spartacus the revolt broke out in southern Italy and involved 70,000 slaves. Spartacus managed to defeat several Roman
armies before being trapped and killed in southern Italy in 71 B.C.E. Six thousand of his followers were crucified, the traditional form of execution for slaves.
7. Imperial Rome
largest population of any city in the empire, close to one million by the time of Augustus. Only Chang'an, the imperial capital of the Han Empire in China, had a comparable population during this time.
gladiatorial shows, which took place in amphitheaters.
Colosseum, constructed in Rome to seat 50,000 spectators.
Contests to the death between trained fighters formed the central focus of these games