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A sound that is produced with a narrow constriction through which air escapes with a continuous noise

Fricative Articulation Summary

Articulators form narrow constriction for airflow. Continuous frication noise is heard. Velopharynx is closed.


Combination sounds involving a stop closure followed by a fricative segment. Air pressure builds up during stop phase and is released as a burst of noise.

Affricates Articulation Summary

Combination of a stop and a fricative. Velopharynx is closed.


voiceless lingua-dental fricative; theta, thing, birthday, thigh, path, breath


voiceless lingua-alveolar fricative; cats, sap, city, say, psalm, scent


voiced lingua-alveolar fricative; jazz, zap, buzz, is, sissors, asthma


voiceless lingua-palatal fricative; shoe, she, sugar, action, ocean


voiced lingua-palatal fricative; treasure, measure, pleasure; is the least frequently used of all sounds


voiced lingua-dental fricative; this, then, breathe, together, mother


voiced lingua-palatal affricate (also can be called palato-alveolar); judge, edge, gin


voiced labiodental fricative; vine, savy, of


voiceless labiodental fricative; fan, off, enough, half


voiceless glottal fricative; happy, who, her, head


voiceless lingua-palatal affricate; church, chew, righteous, cello, question, nature, mansion


Antecedent Behavior Consequence


only fricatives are formed here

dentalized constriction

in which the tongue makes a constriction with the area just behind the upper front teeth (incisors)


having the same place of articulation. For example, /m/ and /b/ are because they share a bilabial articulation.


having the same manner of articulation. For example, /m/ and /n/ are because they share the nasal manner.


a sound formed with a complete or narrow constriction of the vocal tract; a stop, fricative, or affricate


a speech sound characterized by an intense, high-pitched noise; for example, the fricatives /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).


a speech sound characterized by an intense frication noise, such as that heard for /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).

voice onset time

the interval between an oral articulatory event (often the release of a stop) and the onset of voicing. If onset of voicing precedes the articulatory event, the sound is said to be prevoiced or to have a voicing lead, and if onset voicing follows the articulatory event it is said to have a voicing lag.


a condition of voicing, usually applied to obstruents, in which voicing or vocal fold vibration begins sometime before an articulatory event, such as a release of a constriction or onset of frication noise.


a manner of articulation in which sound escapes around the sides of the tongue.

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