How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

26 terms

Fricatives and Affricates

A sound that is produced with a narrow constriction through which air escapes with a continuous noise
Fricative Articulation Summary
Articulators form narrow constriction for airflow. Continuous frication noise is heard. Velopharynx is closed.
Combination sounds involving a stop closure followed by a fricative segment. Air pressure builds up during stop phase and is released as a burst of noise.
Affricates Articulation Summary
Combination of a stop and a fricative. Velopharynx is closed.
voiceless lingua-dental fricative; theta, thing, birthday, thigh, path, breath
voiceless lingua-alveolar fricative; cats, sap, city, say, psalm, scent
voiced lingua-alveolar fricative; jazz, zap, buzz, is, sissors, asthma
voiceless lingua-palatal fricative; shoe, she, sugar, action, ocean
voiced lingua-palatal fricative; treasure, measure, pleasure; is the least frequently used of all sounds
voiced lingua-dental fricative; this, then, breathe, together, mother
voiced lingua-palatal affricate (also can be called palato-alveolar); judge, edge, gin
voiced labiodental fricative; vine, savy, of
voiceless labiodental fricative; fan, off, enough, half
voiceless glottal fricative; happy, who, her, head
voiceless lingua-palatal affricate; church, chew, righteous, cello, question, nature, mansion
Antecedent Behavior Consequence
only fricatives are formed here
dentalized constriction
in which the tongue makes a constriction with the area just behind the upper front teeth (incisors)
having the same place of articulation. For example, /m/ and /b/ are because they share a bilabial articulation.
having the same manner of articulation. For example, /m/ and /n/ are because they share the nasal manner.
a sound formed with a complete or narrow constriction of the vocal tract; a stop, fricative, or affricate
a speech sound characterized by an intense, high-pitched noise; for example, the fricatives /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).
a speech sound characterized by an intense frication noise, such as that heard for /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).
voice onset time
the interval between an oral articulatory event (often the release of a stop) and the onset of voicing. If onset of voicing precedes the articulatory event, the sound is said to be prevoiced or to have a voicing lead, and if onset voicing follows the articulatory event it is said to have a voicing lag.
a condition of voicing, usually applied to obstruents, in which voicing or vocal fold vibration begins sometime before an articulatory event, such as a release of a constriction or onset of frication noise.
a manner of articulation in which sound escapes around the sides of the tongue.