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Anticholinergic drugs

bind to muscarinic receptors and competitively antagonize ACh/ block the ACh receptors

Pharmacologic actions of anticholinergic drugs on resp. system

inhibits secretions and causes bronchodilation

Pharmacologic actions of anitcholinergic drugs on cardiovascular system

increased heart rate/AV conduction

Pharmacologic actions of anticholinergic drugs on GI tract

decrease salivary/GI secretions, decrease motility/antispasmodic action

Pharmacologic actions of anticholinergic drugs on GU

inhibit voiding of urine in over active baldder, contraindicated in males with BPH

Pharmacologic actions of anticholinergic drugs on CNS

sedation especially scopaloamine, cns stimulation/delirium, profound CNS depression and respiratory rate

Pharmacologic actions of anticholinergic drugs on eyes

mydriasis, cyclopegia, dilation of pupils, contraindicated in glaucoma

Atropine: mechanism of action

has a high affinity for muscarinic receptor and competitively binds to prevent ACh from binding to these sites

Atropine: actions on eye

blocks all cholinergic activity resulting in persistant mydriasis and unresponsiveness to light, and cycloplegia

Atropine: contraindication in eye

in patients with narrow angle glaucoma intraocular pressure may rise dangerously

Atropine: actions on GI

used as an antispasmodic to reduce activity of GI tract, but does not affect hydrochloric acid production

Atropine: actions on the Urinary system

reduce hpermotility states of the urinary bladder, and is used in enuresis among children

Atropine: action on cardiovascular

at low doses- decreases cardiac rate due to blockade of M1 receptors
at high doses- M2 receptors on SA node are blocked and cardiac rate increases
at toxic levels will dilate cutaneous vasculature

Atropine: action on secretions

blocks salivary glands, sweat and lacrimal glands are similarly affected

Therapeutic uses of Atropine: eye

permits the measurement of refractive errors without interference by the accommodative capacity of the eye

Therapeutic uses of Atropine: Antispasmodic

used to relax the GI tract and bladder

Therapeutic uses of Atropine: antidote

treatment for overdoses of cholinesterase inhibitor insecticide and some mushroom poisoning also blocks affects of acetylchoinesterase inhibitors like physostigmine

Therapeutic causes for Atropine: antisecretory

block secretions in the upper and lower respiratory tracts prior to surgery

Atropine: pharmacokinetics

atropine is readily absorbed patially metabolized by the liver and eliminatied primarily in the urine

Atropine: adverse effects

drymouth, blurred vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, consitpation, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, depression, collapse of the circulatory and respiratory system and death


derivative of atropine that is inhaled because of their positive charges it does not enter the CNS or systemic circulation

Ipratropium: Therapeutic uses

Treats COPD (chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a bronchodilator

Scopolamine: main clinical uses

intestinal disorders and motion sickness and in obstetrics with morphine to produce amnesia and sedation

Tolterodine: main clinical uses

Used to treat overactive urinary bladder disease; relief of urinary spasms, urgency, and incontinence

Tolterodine: actions

by blocking muscarinic receptors in the bladder, intravesicular pressure is lowered and bladder capacity is increased so the frequency of bladder contraction is reduced

Tolterodine: adverse effects

dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision

Hyoscyamine: main clinical uses

the drug works peripherally, NOT in the CNS. Used for intestinal disorders, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome

Toxic effects of atropine and scopolamine

found in many plant berries, can lead to death in a few hours should treat with physiostigmine

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