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45 terms

PSY 100 Ch. 4

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sensation
the stimulation of sense organs
perceptions
the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input
lens
a transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina
nearsightedness
close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurry
farsightedness
distant objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurry
pupil
the opening int he center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye
retina
the neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain
cones
specialized visual recepetors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision
fovea
a tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones, visual acuity is greatest at this spot
rods
specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision
dark adaptation
the process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination
light adaptation
the process in which the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination
receptive field of a visual cell
the retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the firing of that cell
optic chiasm
the point at which the axons form the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
feature detectors-
neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli
subtractive color mixing
works by removing some wavelength of light, leaving less light than was originally there
additive color mixing
works by superimposing lights, putting more light int he mixture than exists in any one light by itself
trichromatic theory
holds that the human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths
color blindness
encompasses a variety of deficiencies in the ability to distinguish among colors
complementary colors
are pairs of colors that produce gray tones when mixed together
afterimage
a visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed
opponent process theory
holds that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors
reversible figure
a drawing that is compatible with two different interpretations that can shift back and forth
perceptual set
a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
inattentional blindness
which involves the failure to see fully visible objects or events in a visual display because one's attention is focused elsewhere
feature analysis
the process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form
bottom-up processing
a progression from individual elements to the whole
top-down processing
a progression from the whole to the elements
phi phenomenon
the illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession
perceptual hypothesis
an inference about what form could be responsible for a pattern of sensory stimulation
depth perception
involves interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are
binocular depth cues
are clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes
retinal disparity
refers to the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object
monocular depth cues
are clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone
pictorial depth cues
cues about distance that can be given in a flat picture
perceptual constancy
is a tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input
visual illusion
involves an apparently inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of a visual stimulus and its physical reality
impossible figures
are objects that can be represented in two-dimensional pictures but cannot exist in three-dimensional space
the cochlea
a fluid-filled, coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing
basilar membrane
runs the length of the spiraled cochlea, holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells
place theory
holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places, along the basilar membrane
frequency theory
holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates
sensory adaptation
a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation
door-in-the-face technique
involves making a large request that is likely to be turned down as a way to increase the chances that people will agree to a smaller request later
comparitors
people, objects, events, and other standards that are used as a baseline for comparison in making judgements