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Dc. Soif


Religious conservatives. Only believed in jewish law AKA the Torah, the oral law was foreign. Represented the upper class they were associated with the Kohanim. They were the minority.


They were the majority of the Jews. Gave equal amount of importance to the written and oral law. The oral law interprets the written law. They believed in immorality of the soul, reward/punishment after death.


Very small group. Qumran-Dead-sea scrolls. They were found in the desert in (1970 something). Part of it deal with the community. They lived throughout Judea. They were farmers and craftsmen. No matter where they were they shared everything. No private property, no slavery, no animal sacrifice. Some say Jesus had contact with this sect.


Apposed to Roman rule. They believed that Jews were obligated to challenge Romans. G-d was the master. Many of them were also pharisees

Historical Jesus

Historical figure-a real true human being. He was a Jew that lived in Judea in the 1st century CE. Jewish context. founded christianity

Christian Bible

Old Testament-Hebrew bible. New Testament-Gospels, Book of Acts, Letters of Paul (he was a follower of Jesus that traveled around and preached), and other documents.


1st 4 books of the Christian Bible. Traditionally it was written by Jesus' disciples after Jesus died, about 60 CE and about 125 CE. They are basically biographies of Jesus' life.


He was a Helenized Jew from Syria. He is a "follower" of Jesus. He never actually met Jesus bc Jesus is dead at the time. He becomes know as the Apostle of the Gentiles. Jesus was to the Jews and Paul was to the Non-Jews. He said to follow Jesus you don't need to convert to Judaism but rather to believe that Jesus was the Messiah. The Jerusalem "Church" (not actually a church it was a community) did not like what Paul was doing. So James, the head of the church, also Jesus' brother, meets with Paul when he comes to Jerusalem. And they have a confrontation.

Great Revolt

also known as the Jewish War in 66-70 CE. In 70 CE Jerusalem is conquered by Romans it is looted and destroyed. All around Judea the Jews make hold-outs. The most famous and best one is Masada.


after the Great Revolt the Jews were forced into subjugation. Although they were able to maintain their religion, the Jewish state ceased to exist. Most Jews were driven from their homeland and forced into exile. The dispersal of Jews is called the Diaspora.


Constantine was a Roman emperor who fought three rivals for the leadership of Rome. Upon engaging in battle he claimed to have received a divine image of a cross while praying for success. He had artisans draw the cross he saw on his soldier's shields. He credited his victory to the Christian god.

Edict of Milan

he declared Christianity to be one of the religions approved by the emperor. Christianity continued to gain strength. In 380, the emperor Theodosius made it the empire's official religion.

Petrine Doctrine

based upon Catholic tradition, which proclaims the legitimacy and supremacy of the Pope over all other bishops of the Catholic Church. It is founded upon the book of Matthew in the Bible

Nicene Creed

Constantine established this to better refine and establish the beliefs of the Catholic Church with regards to Christianity. He called the leaders of the Church to Nicaea in Anatolia.

St. Augustine

One of the most important Fathers of the Church. He was Bishop of Hippo in North Africa. He taught that humans needed the grace of god to be saved. He claimed that people couldn't receive gods grace unless they were members of the Church. He is also the author of The City of God, a book discussing Rome and the fact that it was plundered in the fifth century. He wrote that even though Rome may have been destroyed the city of god could never be destroyed.

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