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What are the subfields of Microbiology?
Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Protozoology, Immunology, and some of Parasitology
Some microbes can tolerate:
A) Flames B) 112 C
C) -80 C D) pH of <1.0 E) All of the above
E) All of the above
What are some examples of the application of Microbiology?
Probiotics, Beer Production, Bioremediation
The importance in disproving Spontaneous Generation was that it showed contamination of a sterile liquid was prevented by what?
Prevented by microbes entering the flask
What did Robert Koch contribute to the study of Microorganisms?
To prove that a suspected pathogenic organism is only pathogenic if it is present in all cases, it can be grown separate and cause the same disease in a healthy host.
What are some examples of emerging diseases?
Lyme disease, AIDS, Mad Cow Disease, Toxic Shock Syndrome, SARS
What are obligate intracellular parasites?
parasites that can only multiply inside a living host cell whose nutrients they use for reproduction
What are characteristics of bacteria?
They are 0.3-2 u in size, no nuclear membrane or organelles, have peptidoglycan in their cell wall, and they are found in all enviornments
What are the characteristics of Archae?
They are 0.3-2 u in size, no nuclear membrane or organelles, and found in all enviornments
What are the characteristics of Eucarya?
5-50 u in size, they have a nuclear membrane and organelles, and not found in extreme environments
What are the 6 most common elements in order of percentage in the cell?
Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
What, in order from strongest to weakest, is the level of strength of bonds?
Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen
The pH scale ranges from 0-14. The lower the number the more ______ it is. The higher the number the more ______ it is.
What are four main types of Biochemical Compounds?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acid
Glycosidic Bonds are formed when Glucose and Fructose combine to make what two things?
Sucrose and H2O
When is a peptide linkage formed?
When two amino acids are joined by the removal of a water molecule and a formation of a peptide bond between the -COOH of one and the -NH2 of another
What are the three protein structures and what they look like?
1. Primary -straight line
2. Secondary -spiral/helical
3. Tertiary -globular/crumpled ball
Coccus; Chain arrangement
Causes strep throat and flesh eating disease
Rod; Anaerobic; Sporing; Brick-shaped rod
Causes gas, gangrene, and food poisoning
What are the 4 ways light works with objects in a microscope?
Refraction, Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection
What are bacterial extracellular structures?
Filamentous Appendages, Flagellum, Pilus, and Cell boundary
What are the 2 functions of the cell wall?
Keeps the cells shape and keeps it from bursting due to osmosis
Describe ABC transport
utilizes a binding protein outside cell membrane to deliver a given molecule to a specific transport complex within the cell membrane
What happens in group translocation?
chemically alters a molecule during its passage through the cell membrane
What are the types of bacteria that grow according to temperature starting with the lowest?
Psychrophilic, Mesophilic, Thermaphilic, and Extreme Thermaphilic
What are the 5 ways to measure bacterial growth?
Colony forming unit count, Most probable number, Filtration, Turbidity, and Microscopic Bacterial Count
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