Terms in this set (124)
Ch. 5 The character of the minuet is best described as
stately and dignified
Ch. 5 A common rondo pattern is
Ch. 5 A brilliant solo section in a concerto designed to display the performer's virtuosity is called
Ch. 5 The usual order of movements in a classical symphony is
fast, slow, dance-related, fast
The typical orchestra of the classical period consisted of
strings, pairs of woodwinds, horns, trumpets, and timpani
In many of Beethoven's works there is a ___________ movement instead of the minuet.
The standard catalog of the compositions of Mozart was made by
Ludwig von Köchel
Chamber music is characterized by
having one performer per part
A string quartet is a musical composition for
two violins, viola, and cello
Classicism, as a stylistic period in music, figured prominently during the years
Theme-and-variations form may be schematically outlined as
The minuet is generally the _____ movement of a classical symphony.
The classical concerto is a large-scale work in three movements for
solo instrument and orchestra
A piano sonata is a musical composition in two or more movements for
A symphony is a
sonata for orchestra
The word baroque has at various times meant all of the following except
Correct answers include: elaborately ornamented, flamboyant, bizarre.
The except answer is: naturalistic
Baroque style flourished in music during the period
Instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in the ____________ period.
Affections in baroque usage refers to
emotional states or moods of music.
A baroque musical composition usually expresses ____________within the same movement.
one basic mood
Terraced dynamics refers to
the sudden alternation from one dynamic level to another.
The main keyboard instruments of the baroque period were the organ and the
The word movement in music normally refers to
a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition
The position of the composer during the baroque period was that of
a high-class servant with few personal rights.
The concerto grosso most often has three movements whose tempo markings are
fast, slow, fast
The first and last movements of the concerto grosso are often in ____________ form.
The main theme of a fugue is called the
An ____________ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action.
____________ refers to a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech.
Recitative (think recite)
A Vivaldi concerto usually has ____________ movements.
While at Leipzig, Bach
All of the following
taught organ and composition, gave recitals, and was often asked to judge the construction of organs.
was responsible for the musical education of some 55 students in the St. Thomas school.
rehearsed, conducted, and usually composed an extended work for chorus, soloists and orchestra for each Sunday and holiday of the church year.
Sets of dance-inspired instrumental movements are called
A sung piece, or choral work with or without vocal soloists, usually with orchestral accompaniment, is the
In their use of aria, duet, and recitative, Bach's cantatas closely resembled the ____________ of the time.
Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no
acting, scenery, or costumes.
Pope Gregory the Great
Leader of Roman Catholic Church for 24 plus years. Allegedly was told by god to begin to make and write music but no proof exists.
Hildegard von Bingen
First composer we have written history of, a german woman. She was sent to a nunnery, and as a kid had intense religious visions and dreams. To compose she would sing aloud, have a assistant record it and then she would go back and put add texts over them.
English monk of the 14th century. The person who recognized Leonin and Perotin as masters who wrote the best 2,3 and 4 part organums.
As a part of the Notre Dame Cathedral he published magnus liber organia which was a collection of polyphonic works.
Associate with Leonin, Perotin, Notre Dame, and Polyphonic music.
Earlier of two masters of Notre Dame. Added a newly composed part to an existing church chant melody. Superimposed the words on top of the melody making it a 2 part polyphony.
After Leonin as a master of Notre Dame. Made 3 and 4 part polyphonies. He added one or two new sets onto the chants that Leonin left making them 3 and 4 layers respectively.
Guillaume de Machaut
First composer in Western music for which we have a complete corpus. (in bold idk what a corpus is)
wrote poetry and wrote in the rondo form which was
'ABaAabAB" in form
Josquin de Prez
wrote "Ave Maria...virgo serena"
wrote in a form of a renaissance motet. His music was first to become widely distributed due to publishing and reached great popularity.
Saved polyphonic music by composing the Pope Marcellus Mass that showed polyphony could work with religious text and meanings.
English composer, famous for writing madrigals in the 16th century
Fully developed the madrigal that Weelkes used. His madrigals were innovative and radical compared to others in the time. He also published the first operatic masterpiece and marked the transition between renaissance and baroque.
Mythology. Son of a muse and god apollo. He was the greatest of all musicians and could charm over any object, ex. rock, animal, lamp.
orpheus' wife in mythology. Was bitten by a viper so she went to the underworld. Orpheus went to Hades and Pluto and sang to them and eventually persuaded them to let Euridice come back. With one condition he could never look her in the face. He did and she went back to hell. He got sad.
English composer. Worked for the King as head organist of Westminster Abbey. He took a bribe got caught and was let go.
Purcell's opera. Notable because it was sung in English, first time ever. The opera had 3 acts. It was only performed one time and that was to a girls boarding school in Chelsea. His only opera of 43 compositions.
Influenced by Corelli. He was a read head who wrote fanfares and upbeat compositions for festivals
Master composer of sonatas. German descent. First major composer to specialize his works to specific instruments, in his case the violin.
Jean Baptiste Lully
Appointed the head of the French music department by Louis XIV and was in charge of all production and publishing of music in france.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Greatest composer of the baroque era. He was a master organist. At the time his works were considered out of date and laughable. It was only later that he received the credit for being a master composer.
German. Combined French, Italian, English and German styles for a new synthesis. With this new style he was the first composer to remain in permanent place in performing repertoire.
Classical Period. Austrian. Oldest member of the Viennese Classical Style. (mozart and beethoven) the others. He developed the symphony "par excellence" with meant full size and developed the string quartet.
Wrote 100 symphonies, 80 quartets and 20 stage works
Nicholas "The Magnificent"
Wealthy european prince. Hired Haydn and became his "protector and patron" He fancied the baryton an out of date instrument that was not used anymore. Haydn went on to write 150 works for the baryton.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
classical period, Viennese Classical style. Lousy gambler. Child prodigy started composing at age 6. died at age 35.
Ludwig van Beethoven
single most influential composer of the 19th century. first great composer of the romantic era. He took the works of mozart and haydn and made pieces in the Viennese style that built of the others' influences. He was the first entirely freelance composer. Brought in new influences of brass and percussion and grew overall symphony size. Went completely deaf but composed great works without hearing known as his "heroic phase"
French leader during the Revolution. "Savior of democratic ideals during the revolution" Beethoven made a composition dedicated to Napoleon i think.
earliest music of the church. consisted of melodicized prayers, no musical accompaniment. Created by a cluster of monks chanting in unison, documentation of this began written music, called "The word"
wrote "ode to joy."
That work inspired Beethoven's 9th symphony. One of Beethoven's favorite german poets.
group of monks that worked in special offices and cubicles within a monastery producing ornate musical manuscripts.
Alleluia: Vidimus Stellum
"we have seen his star"
Latin chant, monophonic, a capella.
From the medieval period.
Normal routine, same prayers and chants that did not change and a part of traditional religious services.
Music changes based on the calendar day or season. ex. specific observances special prayers would be used like easter, feast days, saint days.
Ave Maria...Virgo Serna
1E listening guide
Composed by Josquin de Prez. Has 4 voices over the instruments so it has 4 layers=polyphonic. His most popular motet, uses points of imitation.
Means 'English quality" or "English Manner" of composition
The old hall manuscript
A collection sacred and liturgical pieces of music. Serves a our historical link between the two time periods.(english medieval renaissance)
Renaissance/"the golden age of a cappella music."
1E-Didn't have a lot on this one.
music is intimately expressive of word.
"The New art" time period in France developed highly sophisticated notation for rhythmic values.
Council of Trent
Created to help purge church of dissension. Music was a topic addressed by them. Said music was " inappropriate use of instruments" they wanted to eliminate polyphonic music.
Points of imitation
1E Listening guide
Sucessive entrances of voices imitate each others melodic lines. each successive entrance echoes the one before it. in "ave Maria...Virgo Serna"
melodic shape, created by successive changes in pitch the rising and falling of high and low tones.
Volume and changes in volume.
pianissimo, piano, moderato, forte, fortissimo.
Disagreement amongst notes in a chord
homophonic style with 3 or 4 parts. The upper voice carries the main melodic line. some had plucked string instruments or lutes as accompaniment. Used for italian secular song in 15th-16th century and laid foundation for madrigal.
frotolla in 4 parts by josquin.
word/text painting meaning they use music to reinforce suggested images of text. playful and witty became popular among amateur musicians. Instead of being sung in church language (latin) it was sung in locals local tongue.
The lead male singer in a serious opera. A mature male who had been castrated before his voice had hit puberty. Unusual tone and pitch like a young boy.
a single soloist vies for attention against an orchestra.(8-20 people) usually violin?
the larger group of the orchestra offsetting the soloists in a concerto grosso. Dominated by a string section.
fugal=polyphonic based off of the subject.
answer=the 2nd entrance, the part that answers the subject
2-4 soloists compete against the tutti or full orchestra.
state funded home for orphaned and abandoned girls. they were taught music by best instructors around and would perform for wealthy and titled.
George Handel. rooted in secular where sermons or "orations" were developed into songs. Singing of these sacred songs was influence on italian opera.
an oratorio by handel. in 1741-42. It is about the old testaments prophets and their fulfillment through christ. 3 acts, 50 scenes.
Multi-stage extended chorale that was liturgical (religious work). drawn from the italian opera (chorale aria and recitative). No acting, no costumes, public paid to view.
lutheran roots from the reformation with luther. has a 4 part style being soprano, alto, tenor and bass as the basic model. still used and taught today
viennese classical style
Started by Haydn in the classical period. This style includes Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
2 hour instrumental concerts from the classical period. 30-40 people in the group back then. used violas, violins, cellos, bass. Violins held main melody. Mozart added the clarinet.
Made up of 4 parts
1-Fast, sonata form in the main key to open the symphony and set key.
2-Slow, lyrical movement. different key than intro. Could be in ABA format or in the sonata minus the development section.
3-A minuet in ABA form. Same key as opening. 3/4 time signature.
4-Finale, fast, often in sonata allegro form
classical string quartet
credited to Haydn developed into 4 movement structure. Refer to quiz question in this deck for the make up.
"First Movement" form.
formal design for countless classical period compositions. Loved by Mozart. Most common form in first movements of pieces in this period. has 3 parts within this one movement. first is exposition which exposes the theme and establishes the central key to the piece.
Development-moves through many keys so increase instability
Recapitulation-recaps the piece and returns to the main key signature established in the exposition
two structural levels unfolding at once. establishing two main keys
1787 known for mixing serious and comedic opera structures to attain great popularity. Lots of other stuff about this but i did not think it was important.
imported italian genre that freely mixed the serious opera and buffa opera styles. Don Giovanni is often referred to as a key example of this genre. (jocular drama)
found in Beethoven's personals when he died. Recorded his despairs and said how he was suicidal. Music and giving that gift to the world was motivation for stopping that. at least until he felt his potential was tapped. Means he was well aware of his courage and self greatness.
"As Vesta was Descending"
By Thomas Weelkes. Part of an anthology titled the triumph of orian. a collection of english madrigals.
Vocal music without instrumental accompaniment.
ex. choir with no back ground instruments.
Monody: aria and recitative
Aria: a highlight, a solo or duet playing an extremely lyrical expression and are historically treasured. It serves as a showcase for individual ability and allowed a dramatic window into the eyes of the character.
Musical recitation of words in a manner that is like chanting or heightened speech.
Solo voice sung with musical accompaniment.
revolutionary derived from ancient Greece used in 17th century italy.
"The Society"-a group of intellectuals including vincezo galilei, galileo's dad.
They analyzed music from a set of hypothesis'.(and tried to return it to what they want
1- recreate drama of ancient song and verse. vocals should be singular and not include polyphonic complexities.
2- monody that emulates the ancients music is necessary.
3-instruments are allowed but should never obscure singing
4-rhythm and melody should mimic emotionally charged speaking.
2A Listening Guide
vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a text.
Instrumental color, each person and instrument is unique. it is how we can tell apart instruments of people's voices.
# of layers of music that are sounding at any point in time
"one sound", type of texture made when people are singing one melodic line. ex. singing happy birthday. all in unison so it is monophonic.
2 distinct sounds going at once, multiple layer.
the person who records the composers work into a "libretto" of little book that contains scripts of the opera.
doctrine of the affections
idea that "one piece, one affect" 6 basic emotions and only 1 can be present at a time
See madrigal, using musical gestures to emulate spoken word
Tu se Morta
"you are dead"
most famous part of monteverdi's opera l'orfeo. orfeo is told that his wife is dead
refers to certain types of instruments and their functions as well as a instrumental core found in all styles of baroque. Provides the bass lines and chords.
notational shorthand, that gives bass line and chord symbols to instruct what keyboard to play from. used for the harpsichord in continuos.
1C listening Guide
melisma- Phrase of many notes sung to a single syllable of text
basso ostinato/ground bass
persistent, constant bass line.
relatively short pattern in the bars, repetition is defining framework.
Multimedia framework for drama, poetry, song, dance,
book end or pillars on either side of the slow lyrical part of a concerto solo. This part is the principal of main part that established both melodic line and key
Multi sectional works in which all sections were of same form.
Usually 4 separate movements
sonata de camera-Chamber sonata
--Dance related movements but intended for listening
Sonata de chiesa- church sonata.
Listening guide for 5th symphony
Beethoven's 3rd symphony
The 'choral' symphony
used in beethoven's 9th symphony, it combined forces forces of orchestra and choir.
ode to joy
poem that inspired the 9th symphony written by friedrich schiller
5th symphony opening.
Basic structure is short, short, short, long
The process of building a massive work out of the simplest materials. He starts from a mere idea and explores every musical possibility