Upgrade to remove ads
Anatomy Test 1 set 2
Terms in this set (90)
Lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body.
Protection, absorption, filtration, secretion
Special characteristic of Epithelia
-Fit closely together in continuous sheets
-Bound together by desmosomes and tight junctions
-Have an apical (free) surface
-Rests on a basement membrane
-Avascular (no blood supply of their own)
-Regenerate easily when well nourished
"Simple" epithelia includes _____ layer(s) of cells
__________ epithelia includes many layer(s) of cells.
Stratified epithelia includes _______ layer(s) of cells.
___________ epithelia includes one layer of cells.
flattened, scale like
Squamous cells are ___________ and __________ like.
Cuboidal cells are ________-like.
Columnar cells are _______-like.
The cells of the _________________ in stratified epithelium determines the name
Functions of simple epithelia
Allows material to pass through by diffusion (such as air) and filtration, and secretes lubricating substance
Functions of simple squamous epithelium
-Air sacs of lungs and the linings of the heart
-Also forms serous membranes
Location of simple squamous epithelium
In ducts and secretory portions of small glands and in kidney tubules. Also covers surface of ovaries
Location of simple cuboidal epithelium
-Ciliated tissues in bronchi
-Smooth digestive tract and bladder
Location of simple columnar epithelium
Ciliated tissued that lines the trachea and much of the upper respiratory tract
Location of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Secretes mucus and ciliated tissue moves the mucus
Function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Protects against abrasion
Function of stratified squamous epithelium
Lines the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
Location of stratified squamous epithelium
Function of stratified columnar epithelium
Sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands
Location of stratified cuboidal epithelium
the male urethra and the ducts of some glands
Location of stratified columnar epithelium
Allows the urinary organs to expand and stretch
Function of transitional epithelium
lines the bladder, urethra, and uterus
Location of transitional epithelium
Thyroid, pituitary, adrenals, Ductless glands. Secretions of these glands are mostly hormones and diffuse directly into bloodstream and reach target through circulation
Liver, pancreas, sweat glands, oil
Retain ducts and their secretions empty through ducts to epithelial surface.
Connective tissue functions
-superficial epidermis composed of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium while the underlying dermis is mostly dense fibrous connective tissue.
-Exposed to air as a dry membrane
-Composed of epithelium resting on loose connective tissue membrane called lamina propria
-Lines all body cavities open to the exterior such as hollow organs of respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.,
-Made of stratified squamous (mouth and esophagus) or simple columnar (digestive tract).
-Always wet membranes bathed in secretions
-Adapted for absorption or secretions.
-Composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue
-Lines body cavities closed to the exterior (except dorsal and joint cavities)
-Consists of parietal layer (outer layer) which covers the cavity and is attached to surrounding tissues.
-And visceral layer which is made when the parietal layer folds in on itself is attached to the organs it covers. So the visceral layer is actually in contact with the organs (the visceral organs). (think of a balloon stretched around a fist, the inner part is the visceral layer and the outer part is the parietal layer).
-Between the parietal and visceral layers is a cavity filled with serous fluid which allows organs to slide and move easily as they perform functions.
Mucous membranes, Serous membranes
Lines body cavities open to the exterior.
Lines body cavities closed to the exterior.
the internal organs in the main cavities of the body, especially those in the abdomen, e.g., the intestines.
Peritoneum (abdominal cavity, parietal and visceral)
Pleura (lungs, parietal and visceral)
Pericardium (parietal and visceral)
Serous membranes in the body?
-Soft tissue found between the joint capsule and the joint cavity. It secretes the synovial fluid which fills the joint cavity and lubricates the joint.
-Composed of soft areolar connective tissue (no epithelium)
-Line fibrous capsules surrounding joints where they provide a smooth surface and secrete a lubricating fluid.
articular (joint) capsule
___________________ is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint
Epidermis - stratified squamous
Dermis - dense connective (fibrous) tissue
Subcutaneous/hypodermis - adipose tissue
Order of skin layers and what they are made out of?
Main cells of the epidermis
Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
Layers of the epidermis superficial to deep.
Closest to dermis
Single layer of cells
On a wavy borderline most adequately nourished.
Closest to blood supply and therefore receives most nutrients and oxygen.
Alive and constantly dividing, daughter cells are pushed upward.
Provides strength and flexibility to the skin.
Thickest layer of living epithelial cells. 8-10 layers held together by desmosomes.
Active, but deteriorating.
Cells become increasingly full of keratin. Last layer of living cells. Repel water due to lamellar granules that release lipids.
Only in palms and soles of feet. Where present, skin is hairless and thickest.
Protects against heavy abrasion.
20-30 layers of flat dead cells filled with keratin and surrounded by lipids.
Lamellar granules make it water repellant.
Barrier to light, heat, water, chemicals, and bacteria
Accounts for 3/4 of epidermis' thickness
You have a new epidermis every _________ days.
Pigment ranging from yellow to brown to black, produces by melanocytes. Accounts for skin color.
Melanocytes are found in the ______________.
How tanning occurs
Sunlight stimulates melanocytes to produce more melanin, which saturates cells with more color.
What makes freckles and moles
Saturation or concentration of melanin in one spot.
a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms. Melanin is produced by the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine, followed by polymerization. The pigment is produced in a specialized group of cells known as melanocytes.
Melanin is an effective absorber of light; the pigment is able to dissipate over 99.9% of absorbed UV radiation. Because of this property, melanin is thought to protect skin cells from UVB radiation damage, reducing the risk of cancer.
Cells involved in immune responses.
Important in activating immune system cells to a threat such as bacterial or viral invasion.
Papillary and reticular
Layers of dermis
Uneven and peg like projections, wavy or looped structure, furnish nutrients to epidermis.
Pain receptors and touch receptors are located here.
Deepest actual skin layer
maintains body temperature and homeostasis
When temperature is high, capillaries become swollen and skin becomes reddened and warm, allowing body heat to radiate from the skin.
When cold, blood bypasses the dermis capillaries temporarily allowing internal body temp to stay high.
irregularly arranged connective tissue fibers
Sweat and oil glands
Deep pressure receptors
phagocytes to eat bacteria
Exocrine glands including sebaceous and sweat glands.
Formed in stratum basale and push into the dermis and reside there.
Found everywhere except palms and soles
Empties into hair follicles.
Produces sebum, oily lubricant keeps skin and hair moist and soft, kills bacteria (protects against invasion of bacteria).
Becomes more active when male sex hormones are produced in adolescence.
Sebaceous gland blocked by sebum
White oxidized and dries and forms a?
Active invasion of the sebaceous glands accompanied by pimples on the skin.
"cradle cap" in infants
Overactivity of sebaceous glands
Starts as pink raised lesions, graduate into oily yellow brown, washed off with soft warm cloth.
Sweat glands - 2.5 mil/person, eccrine and apocrine
Most numerous type of sweat gland. All over the body. Produce sweat at a pH that inhibits growth of bacteria.
Sweat glands confined to axillary and genital areas.
Larger than eccrine and empty into hair follicles.
secrete fatty acids and proteins, and the things that eccrine secretes,
Where is hair produced?
Part of hair in hair follicle
Part of hair projecting from the surface of skin or scalp.
Central core of hair
Surrounds medulla of hair
Surrounds cortex of hair, outermost, single layer of cells that overlap like roof shingles.
Most heavily keratinized structure of hair, provides strength and helps keep the inner hair layers tightly compacted.
Cuticle wears away at tip of shaft, keratin fibrils frizz out.
smooth, silky, wavy hair
Oval shaped hair shaft results in ?
Curly and kinky hair
Flat shaped hair shaft results in ?
Straight and course hair
Perfectly round hair shaft results in?
Lips, nipples, soles of feet, palms of hands
Hairless body parts
All of them
How much of the hair follicles you will have are you born with?
Fastest growing tissue in the body, what accounts for growth?
Muscle that contracts to raise hair when frightened or to keep warm or to scare enemies.
scale-like modification of the epidermis that corresponds to the hoof of claw of animals.
visible attached portion of nail.
portion of nail embedded in the skin
Edge of the thick proximal nail folds.
Stratum basal of the epidermis extends beneath the nail to form?
thickest proximal area, responsible for nail growth.
dead and keratinized
Nail cells are living or dead?
white part of nail that is thickened
4 cell types found in epidermis? Made of stratified squamous cells.
Keratinocytes - most of the cells there.
Melanocytes - produce melanin in response to sunlight.
Langerhans cells - immune cells
Merkel cells - receptive involved in sense of touch
Sebaceous, or oil, glands, are attached to hair follicles and can be found everywhere on the body except for the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. These glands secrete oil that helps keep the skin smooth and supple. The oil also helps keep skin waterproof and protects against an overgrowth of bacteria and fungi on the skin.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
anatomy unit 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Anatomy Test 1 Bones
Human Anatomy Day 8
Human Anatomy Day 6