A characteristic that we can observe or measure without changing the identity of the substance
Independent of the size of the sample. Temperature is a ________ because it doesn't matter how much water is in the bath, the temperature will stay the same.
Dependent of the size of the sample. 2qt's of milk is twice as much as 1 qt.
The ability of a substance to be changed into another substance
The identity of a substance doesn't change while the physical properties do change. (Water that gets frozen)
When a substance is changed into a different substance
SYSTEME INTERNATIONAL (SI)
Can be expressed as meter, gram, and second.
The number of digits that can be justified by the data
The rate of change of position
The capacity to do work
Ek, energy that a body possesses due to it's motion. Ek=1/2mv²
Ep, energy an object possesses due to its position in a field of force. Ep=mgh
the energy due to attraction and repulsions between electric charges
A region of influence that affects changed particles
A region of influence that affects the motion of moving charged particles
the random, chaotic motion of atoms.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
The energy available from a chemical reaction. Example: the energy released in the combustion of fuel.
(1) The smallest particle of an element that has the chemical properties of the element. (2) An electrically neutral species consisting of nucleus and it's surrounding electrons.
A model of the atom in which the electrons surround a minute central nucleus.
the positively charged dense center of an atom
an elementary particle with negative charge
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
(Z) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; this number determines the identity of the element and the nmber of electrons in the neutral atom.
spectroscope for obtaining a mass spectrum by deflecting ions into a thin slit and measuring the ion current with an electrometer
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
a proton or a neutron
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
vertical columns of the periodic table
Any one of the groups forming the s- and p-blocks of the periodic table. 1-2, 13-18 groups
(s-block, p-block, d-block, f-block) The region of the periodic table containing elements for which, according to the building-up principle, the corresponding sub-shell is currently being filled.
An element that is a member of group 3-11.
INNER TRANSITION METALS
A member of the f-block of the periodic table (the lanthanoids and actinoids)
A member of the first row of the f-block (cerium-ytterbium)
A member of the second row of the f-block
A member of group 1 of the periodic table (the lithium family)
ALKALINE EARTH METALS
Calcium, strontium, and barium; more informally a member of group 2 of the periodic table (the beryllium family)
A member of group 18/ VIII of the periodic table (helium family).
A member of group 17/VII.
(1) A substance that conducts electricity, has a metallic luster, is a malleable and ductile, forms cations, and has basic oxides. (2) consists of cations held together by a sea of electrons.
A substance that does not conduct electricity and is neither malleable nor ductile.
An element that has the physical appreance and properties of a metal but behaves chemically like a nonmetal.
(1) A specific combination of elements that can be separated into its elements by chemical techniques but not physical technique. (2) A substance consisting of atoms of two or more elements in a definite, unchangeable ration.
Consisting of two components, as in binary mixture and binary (ionic or molecular) compound. Examples; acetone and water (a binary mixture); HCl, CaCl₂
A compound containing the element carbon and usually hydrogen. (the carbonates are usually excluded).
A compound that is not organic.
An inorganic compound formed from two metals in specific proportions. Examples; NiTi, Ag₃Sn, FeCo
(1) The smallest particle of a compound that possesses the chemical properties of the compound. (2) A definate, distinct, electrically neutral group of bonded atoms. Examples: H₂, NH₃, CH₃COOH
a positively charged ion. Examples: Na⁺, NH₄⁺
An electronically charged Atom or group of atoms. Examples; Al³⁺, SO²⁻
A negatively charged ion. Examples; F⁻, SO₄²⁻
a compound that consists of positive and negative ions
a compound that is composed of molecules. Examples: Water, sulfur hexafluoride, benzoic acid.
A chemical formula that shows how atoms in a compound are attached to one another.
A depiction of a molecule in which atoms are represented by spheres that indicate the space occupied by each atom
A representation of molecular structure that uses tubes to indicate the lengths and distances of bonds. The ends of each tube are colored to indicate the identities of the elements forming the bond.
A Graphic image that represents a molecular structure as a surface and show the distribution of electrons in a molecule; the surface corresponds to locations with the same electron density.
ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL SURFACE
A molecular structure in which the net charge is calculated at each point of the density isosurface and depicted by different colors; an "elpot" surface.
An ion formed from a single atom. Examples Na⁺; Cl⁻
An ion that consists of two atoms with a net charge.
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
An anion of an oxoacid. Examples: HCO₃⁻; CO₃²⁻
The group of ions that matches the formula of the smallest unit of an ionic compound.