How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

64 terms

Chemical Principles 5th Edition Section A, B, C

Matter and Energy
STUDY
PLAY
PHYSICAL PROPERTY
A characteristic that we can observe or measure without changing the identity of the substance
INTENSIVE PROPERTY
Independent of the size of the sample. Temperature is a ________ because it doesn't matter how much water is in the bath, the temperature will stay the same.
EXTENSIVE PROPERTY
Dependent of the size of the sample. 2qt's of milk is twice as much as 1 qt.
CHEMICAL PROPERTY
The ability of a substance to be changed into another substance
PHYSICAL CHANGE
The identity of a substance doesn't change while the physical properties do change. (Water that gets frozen)
CHEMICAL CHANGE
When a substance is changed into a different substance
SYSTEME INTERNATIONAL (SI)
Can be expressed as meter, gram, and second.
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
The number of digits that can be justified by the data
VELOCITY
The rate of change of position
ENERGY
The capacity to do work
KINETIC ENERGY
Ek, energy that a body possesses due to it's motion. Ek=1/2mv²
POTENTIAL ENERGY
Ep, energy an object possesses due to its position in a field of force. Ep=mgh
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD
the energy due to attraction and repulsions between electric charges
ELECTRIC FIELD
A region of influence that affects changed particles
MAGNETIC FIELD
A region of influence that affects the motion of moving charged particles
THERMAL MOTION
the random, chaotic motion of atoms.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
CHEMICAL ENERGY
The energy available from a chemical reaction. Example: the energy released in the combustion of fuel.
ATOM
(1) The smallest particle of an element that has the chemical properties of the element. (2) An electrically neutral species consisting of nucleus and it's surrounding electrons.
NUCLEAR MODEL
A model of the atom in which the electrons surround a minute central nucleus.
NUCLEUS
the positively charged dense center of an atom
ELECTRON
an elementary particle with negative charge
PROTON
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
ATOMIC NUMBER
(Z) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; this number determines the identity of the element and the nmber of electrons in the neutral atom.
MASS SPECTROMETER
spectroscope for obtaining a mass spectrum by deflecting ions into a thin slit and measuring the ion current with an electrometer
ISOTOPES
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
NEUTRONS
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
NUCLEONS
a proton or a neutron
MASS NUMBER
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
GROUPS
vertical columns of the periodic table
MAIN GROUPS
Any one of the groups forming the s- and p-blocks of the periodic table. 1-2, 13-18 groups
BLOCKS
(s-block, p-block, d-block, f-block) The region of the periodic table containing elements for which, according to the building-up principle, the corresponding sub-shell is currently being filled.
TRANSITION METALS
An element that is a member of group 3-11.
INNER TRANSITION METALS
A member of the f-block of the periodic table (the lanthanoids and actinoids)
LANTHANOIDS
A member of the first row of the f-block (cerium-ytterbium)
ACTINOIDS
A member of the second row of the f-block
ALKALI METALS
A member of group 1 of the periodic table (the lithium family)
ALKALINE EARTH METALS
Calcium, strontium, and barium; more informally a member of group 2 of the periodic table (the beryllium family)
NOBLE GASES
A member of group 18/ VIII of the periodic table (helium family).
HALOGENS
A member of group 17/VII.
METAL
(1) A substance that conducts electricity, has a metallic luster, is a malleable and ductile, forms cations, and has basic oxides. (2) consists of cations held together by a sea of electrons.
NONMETAL
A substance that does not conduct electricity and is neither malleable nor ductile.
METALLOID
An element that has the physical appreance and properties of a metal but behaves chemically like a nonmetal.
COMPOUND
(1) A specific combination of elements that can be separated into its elements by chemical techniques but not physical technique. (2) A substance consisting of atoms of two or more elements in a definite, unchangeable ration.
BINARY COMPOUND
Consisting of two components, as in binary mixture and binary (ionic or molecular) compound. Examples; acetone and water (a binary mixture); HCl, CaCl₂
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
A compound containing the element carbon and usually hydrogen. (the carbonates are usually excluded).
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
A compound that is not organic.
INTERMETALIC COMPOUNDS
An inorganic compound formed from two metals in specific proportions. Examples; NiTi, Ag₃Sn, FeCo
MOLECULE
(1) The smallest particle of a compound that possesses the chemical properties of the compound. (2) A definate, distinct, electrically neutral group of bonded atoms. Examples: H₂, NH₃, CH₃COOH
CATION
a positively charged ion. Examples: Na⁺, NH₄⁺
ION
An electronically charged Atom or group of atoms. Examples; Al³⁺, SO²⁻
ANION
A negatively charged ion. Examples; F⁻, SO₄²⁻
IONIC COMPOUND
a compound that consists of positive and negative ions
MOLECULAR COMPOUND
a compound that is composed of molecules. Examples: Water, sulfur hexafluoride, benzoic acid.
STRUCTURAL FORMULA
A chemical formula that shows how atoms in a compound are attached to one another.
SPACE-FILLING MODEL
A depiction of a molecule in which atoms are represented by spheres that indicate the space occupied by each atom
TUBE STRUCTURE
A representation of molecular structure that uses tubes to indicate the lengths and distances of bonds. The ends of each tube are colored to indicate the identities of the elements forming the bond.
DENSITY ISOSURFACE
A Graphic image that represents a molecular structure as a surface and show the distribution of electrons in a molecule; the surface corresponds to locations with the same electron density.
ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL SURFACE
A molecular structure in which the net charge is calculated at each point of the density isosurface and depicted by different colors; an "elpot" surface.
MONATOMIC IONS
An ion formed from a single atom. Examples Na⁺; Cl⁻
DIATOMIC ION
An ion that consists of two atoms with a net charge.
POLYATOMIC ION
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
OXOANIONS
An anion of an oxoacid. Examples: HCO₃⁻; CO₃²⁻
FORMULA UNIT
The group of ions that matches the formula of the smallest unit of an ionic compound.