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AP HUG Agriculture
Agricultural and Rural Land Use
Terms in this set (38)
Von Thunen Model
Developed by German geographer Johann Heinrich von Thunen, this model explains and predicts agricultural land use patterns in a theoretical state by varying transportation cost. Given the model's assumptions, the pattern that emerges predicts more-intensive rural land uses closer to the marketplace, and more-extensive rural land uses farther from the city's marketplace. These rural land use zones are divided in the model into concentric rings.
System of food production involving everything from the development of seeds to the marketing and sale of food products at the market.
Growing plants or raising animals to produce food for sustenance or sale at the marketplace.
Using living organisms to produce or change plant or animal products.
Growing food to be sold in groceries and markets, not just to be eaten by the farmers themselves.
Growth of milk-based products for the marketplace.
Planting and harvesting a crop on a field more than once a year.
Extensive subsistence agriculture
Using a large amount of land to farm food for the farmer's family to eat.
Form of biotechnology that uses scientific, genetic manipulation of crop and animal products to improve agricultural productivity and products.
As an outgrowth of the third agricultural revolution, this effort began in the 1940s and developed new strains of hybrid seeds and fertilizers that dramatically increased the crop output possible from each farm.
Hunters and gatherers
Nomadic people who do not remain stationary but follow herds of wild animals and forage for plants for survival
Intensive subsistence agriculture
Cultivating a small amount of land very efficiently to produce food for the farmer's family.
Practice of mixing many types of seeds on the same plot of land.
Type of farming involving wheat, barley, vine, and tree crops and grazing for sheep and goats; primarily associated with the region near the Mediterranean Sea and places with climates that have hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters.
Zone around the city's center in which milk can be produced and shipped to the marketplace without spoiling.
Breeding and herding of animals to produce food, shelter, and clothing for survival.
Farming that involves large-scale operations, known as plantations or agricultural estates, specializing in the farming of one or two high-demand crops for export, usually to more-developed regions.
Raising animals on a plot of land on which they feed or graze.
Form of extensive subsistence agriculture in which farmers rotate the fields they cultivate to allow the soil to replenish its nutrients, rather than farming the same plot of land over and over.
Common way that subsistence farmers prepare a new plot of land for farming; system in which the land is cleared by cutting the existing plants on the land and then burning the rest to create a cleared plot of new farmland.
Loss of the nutrient-rich top layer in soil.
Rate of crop production that can be maintained over time.
Third agricultural revolution
Period in which agriculture became globalized and industrialized, and new technologies increased the food supply.
Movement of animal herds to cooler highland areas in the summer to warmer lowland areas in the winter.
Commercial flower farm or garden.
Explain how agriculture originated and identify its various hearths.
Agriculture first originated around 10,000 years ago when a group of hunter gatherers realized that dropping seeds in the ground caused a plant to grow there, they continued to experiment with different seeds and soon started what now is called agriculture.
Originated in south western Asia with early crop and livestock domestication.
Various hearths of agriculture would be Europe with its Mediterranean agriculture, South western United States with its crop and livestock farming and livestock ranching and shifting cultivation in Africa with intensive cultivation in South Western Asia.
Describe the evolution of agricultural practices from their first use until today.
First use of agriculture would be the Neolithic Revolution in which hunter/gatherers discovered agriculture and settled into area and started farming, Then the Agricultural revolution in Europe and United States during the eighteen hundreds which added technological advancement to agriculture making it easier on large farms. and finally the green revolution in 1940 and 1950 in which genetically modified high yield seed were invented, along with fertilizer, pesticides, and more advanced Machinery.
First Agricultural Revolution
1st agricultural revolution occurred around 8000 BC (hunters and gatherers). Use the sash and burn method, domestication of plants and animals (people control the plants and animals)
Second Agricultural Revolution
2nd agricultural revolution: Industrial Revolution (1800 CE) Machines are made and applied to farming, Enclosure Act,You can control your own land; no one else can touch it, Not as many crops as people
Enclosure Act- we as humans now have the right to own land (second agricultural revolution)
Third (Green) Agricultural Revolution
3rd Green Revolution: Massive surge of industrial farming machines, Better equipment, pesticides
Correlate climate and terrain with various agricultural regions.
Mediterranean agriculture: Semi arid land with lots of hills that have not so cold winters and hot summers but are cooled by sea breeze. exists on land the border Mediterranean sea, Pacific in Southern western US, Chile, North Africa, Western Asia, South Africa, Southwestern Australia.
Describe and apply the Von Thünen model to both small and large scale situations.
Small Scale: Single market center
Large Scale: In the commercial farming of milk, the farms locate closer to urban areas for transportation reasons.
Map linkages between regions of production and consumption at different scales.
Dairy farms will locate near urban areas because it will spoil and go bad. Also, it is less expensive to transport milk a lesser distance (this goes for all crops)
Use agricultural practice to differentiate between less developed and relatively developed countries.
Shifting Cultivation compared to four field system (crop rotation): Shifting cultivation is located in LDCs such as Africa in which the people in the village cut down the village and burn the debris to make to soil healthy then they cultivate it for 2 years then leave it for 20 years or leave it completely, this is inefficient because it destroys the land that they abandoned. Four field system in the MDC in which they use one field to plant root crops, field 2 for resting where they plant legooms, field 3 for cereal crops and field 4 for root crops, then they rotate. this keeps the soil healthy and maximizes output of crops.
Discuss current trends and recent changes in agricultural practices in both developed and developing regions
MDCs have big farms and practice commercial agriculture mostly, while LDCs have tiny farms and practice subsistence agriculture . Crop Types: MDC grow cash crops like tobacco, and they also grow crops like corn and soybeans, wheat.LDC grow crops that are easy to grow and can feed their families such as corn. Effects of changing markets. Government practices: MDC change their crops to not produce excess crop and keep their surplus so they can trade and feed their people, LDC change their food production because of government practices and cultural policies and taboos. crop types
Planting different crops each year to replenish soil
Innovation is greatest when population pressure is highest