5001 Praxis (Earth Science)-combined
Terms in this set (86)
Why study Earth science?
Earth science is important to understand as it directly relates to human actions and behaviors.
Structures of the Earth System
The earth is comprised of many complex systems. These systems make up the various components and layers of the earth, both on the surface and above the earth.
Four principal components associate with the earth.
These four principal components work together in a constant complex system:
Five layers of the atmosphere, listed from highest to lowest
(outermost area composed of hydrogen and helium from 300-600 miles to 6,000 miles)--This layer is slender and interacts with solar winds.
-Solar winds can compress this layer or allow it to increase in depth.
-It ranges from 620 to 6,214 miles above the earth's surface, where it then merges with interplanetary space.
(265,000-285,000 feet to 400+ miles)--Energy particles (ions) from the sun and outer space create this electric layer. This layer extends approximately 430 miles above the earth's surface.
(160,000 feet to about 285,000 feet)--This layer usually burns up the meteors that fly toward Earth, keeping them from striking the surface. It extends about 52 miles above the earth's surface and is extremely cold.
(23,000-60,000 feet to about 160,000)--Includes the ozone layer, which blocks the harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun, causing it to be warmer than the troposphere. It extends about 30 miles above the earth's surface.
(23,000 to 60,000 feet)--Provides most of the earth's weather and contains about 4/5 of the Earth's air. It extends about 11 miles from the earth's surface at the equator but less at the poles. the earth's structure is composed of four concentric spheres.
These layers of the earth include:
5-30 miles thick, not fixed, a mosaic of moving plates, outer shell.
1,800 miles thick, plasticity (ability of solid to flow), circulating currents, causing the plates to move (it is comprised of the asthenosphere and lithosphere).
1,300 miles thick, viscous liquid, the earth's magnetic field originates here.
800 miles to the center of the earth, a solid.
The earth's crust is divided into 20 plates, each varying in size and thickness. These plates continually drift and shift, changing the strutter of the earth's landforms. Plates are found under continents (continental plates) and beneath the ocean (oceanic plates).
pull water (hydrosphere) and nutrients from the soil (lithosphere) and release oxygen and water vapor into the air (atmosphere).
build dams using rock materials (lithosphere) to control a lake (hydrosphere); as the water evaporates, it disperses into the air (atmosphere).
Influences the earth more than any other process in the universe. There are two sources of heat:
1.) Solar energy (the sun)
2.) Radioactivity (Earth's core)
The process of moving weathered materials by water or winds to another location.
The process of moving weathered materials by water or winds to another location.
All rocks come from the mantle except for limestone.
Forms when magna cools (for example, grannie and pumice).
Forms when layers of sediments are compressed (for example, sandstone, limestone, coal, and shale).
Forms through the transformation of igneous and sedentary rocks through heat and pressure (for example, marble, slate, and quartzite)
The weather cycle occurs in the ___________.
The weather cycle occurs in the (troposphere).
Three contributing factors to weather
1.) Solar radiation: Heat energy or infrared radiation from the sun hits the earth's surface and changes into heat
2.) Earth movement: The seasons are caused by the orbit of the earth around the sun and the rotation of the earth upon its axis.
3.) Water cycle: A natural process in which water evaporates, condenses, and precipitates across the earth's surface.
3 types of plate movement
1. Divergent (separating)
2. Convergent (collision)
3. Transform (rubbing)
Results of Divergent (separating) plate movement
mountains, volcanoes, ridges, recycling of rust
Results of Transform (rubbing) plate movement
Results of Convergent (collision) plate movement
new crust, rivers, oceans, lakes
-The earth is on an axis and the sun hits the surface at varying angles, causing the major climates to occur on the planet.
-The sun affects and influences the type of life that exists in the various regions. It affects weather, which in turn affects the vegetation and erosion.
-Radioactivity is responsible for plate tectonics, most volcanoes, and earthquakes, which are located near plate boundaries.
-Radioactivity makes mountains, valleys, ocean, basins, lake beds, island, trenches, and most other landforms.
-The earth started as a giant, red hot, rolling, magma ocean caused by the collision of space rocks.
-As collisions slowed, the planet began to slowly cool, forming a thin crust on the surface.
-During this cooling, water vapor condensed in the air to form the Earth's atmosphere.
-Clouds formed and storms began to develop, bringing more and more water to the surface to cool it. The surface flooded with water, forming the oceans and seas.
A type of science that investigates how the earth and its life-forms have developed over time. The earth is almost 5 billion years old.
-Currently, we know that 71% of the earth's surface is ocean, with 97% of the earth's water represented in the oceans.
-The continents known have moved over time and landforms known today have changed since the early beginnings of the earth's formation.
-The earth's plate move 2-5 cm. per year.
Two laws that help explain the history of the earth
1.) Principle of Uniformitarianism: The scientific laws that govern the earth today are the same since the beginning of time. The present is the key to the past.
2.) Laws of Superposition: The oldest rocks and events are found at the bottom of formations, and the youngest are found at the top. The past is on the bottom.
The geological time scale describes two major _____.
The geological time scale describes two major (eons).
A very long or indefinite period of time that explains the age of the universe and can be measured by billions of years.
The period of time from the early formation of Earth (4.6 billion years ago) to the rise of pif-forms, which are similar to present-day life-forms.
The period of time from the rise of life-forms to present day. Three eras are found within the Phanerozoic Eon.
Earth life, approximately 540 to 570 may-245 may--Trilobites, shells, mollusks, brachiopods, echinoderm, rise of first vertebrates, rise of land plants, rise of amphibians and large complex reptiles, and the beginning of insects, seed plants, and trees.
Middle life, approximately 245 may-65 may--The rise of mammals and dinosaurs, the rise of birds, the extinction of dinosaurs, and the rise of flowering plants.
Late life, 65 mya-present day- The rise of primates, the rise of horses, the rise of hominids, and modern man.
The universe originated approximately ___ billion years ago from large accounts of matter that experienced a catastrophic __________, which spread outward in all directions from the _________.
The universe originated approximately (20) billion years ago from large accounts of matter that experienced a catastrophic (explosion), which spread outward in all directions from the(epicenter).
the galaxies were formed into galactic ________.
the galaxies were formed into galactic (cluster).
The ____ _____ galaxy is where the Earth is located. Everything that is seen in the sky with the naked eye belongs to this galaxy.
The (Milky Way) galaxy is where the earth is located. Everything that is seen in the sky with the naked eye belongs to this galaxy.
The _____ and all bodies that ________ around it comprise our solar system.
The (sun) and all bodies that (revolve) around it comprise our solar system.
Name the 8 planets
Is Pluto considered a planet?
Pluto was once considered the ninth planet in our solar system, but in 2006 there was a reclassification of space worlds.
-Since Pluto, Eris, and Ceres are more complex and developed than an asteroid but do not have the gravitational power to move and scatter objects near their orbits, they could not be classified as planets.
-These three worlds became the first dwarf planets identified in our solar system. Each planet revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit at varying speed.
Each planet has its own ______(s) that revolves around the planet and is caught in the planet's __________ pull.
Each planet has its own (Moon[s]) that revolves around the planet and is caught in the planet's (gravitational) pull.
A stony or metallic particle that revolves around the sun.
Created when meteorites burn through the earth's atmosphere.
Revolves around the sun and possesses a tail and nucleus. The tail always points AWAY from the sun due to SOLAR WINDS.
A type of boundary system astronomers use for organizing the night sky.
There are ___ constellational regions and each region is named for a group of stars found within it.
There are (88) constellational regions and each region is named for a group of stars found within it.
The earth within the universe
Earth has one moon, which takes one lunar month to revolve (28 days) around the Earth. The moon does not emit its own light but rather reflects the sun's light. The moon rotates upon an axis just like Earth, at exactly the same period and speed. Therefore the same side of the moon is seen at all times.
Phases of the moon are caused by the _______ of the moon _______ to the sun.
Phases of the moon are caused by the (position) of the moon (relative) to the sun.
The moon exhibits five different phases during its rotation around the earth:
1. new moon
2. crescent moon
3. quarter moon
4. gibbous moon
5. full moon.
Waxing and Waning
During two of the moon phases, the moon also exhibits waxing and waning. A waxing moon occurs when the sunlit portion of the moon is increasing and a warning moon occurs when the sunlit portion of the moon decreases.
-A waxing moon occurs in the 5 phases during both the crescent and the gibbous phases. A warning moon also occurs twice in the 5 phases during both the crescent and the gibbous phase.
Phases of the moon
EclipseThe total or partial obscuring of a celestial body by another body, particularly involving the sun, the earth, and the moon.
-An eclipse of the sun or moon occurs when the earth, moon and sun are aligned. There are three types of eclipses involving these celestial bodies.
During a lunar eclipse, part of the moon is blocked by the earth's shadow and is no longer illuminated by the sun. A lunar eclipse only occurs during a full moon when the moon is directly opposite the sun.
During a solar eclipse, the moon comes between the sun and the earth, casting a shadow upon the earth. During a total solar eclipse, the moon completely covers the vision of the sun and only the corona is visible.
An annular eclipse occurs when the moon is the farthest orbit from the earth and does not fully cover the sun, so part of the sun is visible as a ring around the moon.
Quiet eruptions-lava flows and hardens into igneous rock. (ex. Mauna Loa in Hawaii)
explosive eruptions-lava is hurled high into the air in spray of droplets. Droplets cool and harden into cinders and ash.
Lava flows and layrs of ash and cinders. (ex. Mount Fuji-Japan, Mount St. Helens-Washington, Mount Vesuvius-Italy)
Normally formed by the collapse of the top of a volcano
the inner portion of the Sun where fusion takes place.
Considered the surface of the Sun, where sunspots are produced
Hydrogen gas causes this portion to be red. Find solar flares here
(Not beer!) The transparent area of the Sun visible only during total eclipse [of the heart].
Allows astronomers to rank how bright different stars appear to humans.
21 of the brightest stars that can be seen from Earth.
Vast collections of stars
radio source that emits signals in short bursts, rotating star
an objet that photographs like a star but has a large redshift and variable energy output. Active core of a distant galaxy
objects that have collapsed to such a degree that light cannot escape from the surface
A burning meteoroid falling through earth's atmosphere is called a _______.
(Meteor), also known as a shooting star.
Hypothetical spherical cloud surrounding the solar system
vast population of small bodies orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune
proposes that the solar system began with a near collision of the Sun and a large star. Gravitation pull of star extracts hot gases from Sun, the mass starts to orbit the sun, begins to cool and condenses into the 9 planets. Few astronomers accept this hypothesis.
The Condensation Hypthesis
proposes that the solar system began with rotating clouds of dust and gas. Condensation forms the Sun and smaller parts of the cloud form the nine planets. Accepted by many.
The Big Bang Theory
Universe originated from a magnificent explosion.
Steady State Theory
least accepted theory, that the universe is continuously being renewed.
Oscillating Universe Hypthothesis
States that the universe will oscillate or expand and contract, galaxies will move away from one another, slow down and stop. Another big bang will occur.
Occuring during the full and new moon, the strong tides that occur when the Earth, Sun, and Moon are in line,
Occur during quarter moons, especially weak tides during which the gravitational forces of the moon and the sun are perpendicular to one another