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Biology ecology study guide
Terms in this set (66)
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
A group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
An organism that makes its own food
An organism that can make its own food.
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
An organism that cannot make its own food.
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
A consumer that eats only plants.
A consumer that eats only animals.
An animal that eats both plants and animals
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Each step in a food chain or food web
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
A measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular region
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
Liquid to gas
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
Compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas
rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
Any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact
Abiotic factors are the non-living parts of an organism's habitat.
Place where an organism lives
Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
A common demand by two or more organisms upon a limited supply of a resource; for example, food, water, light, space, mates, nesting sites. It may be intraspecific or interspecific.
An interaction in which one organism kills another for food.
A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species.
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance
An ecological succession that begins in an area where no biotic community previously existed
First species to populate an area during primary succession
Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
Number of individuals per unit area
Migration to a new location
Migration from a location
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.
limiting factor that depends on population size
factor unrelated to population density that limits a population
The amount of biological or living diversity per unit area. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity.
variety of habitats, living communities, and ecological processes in the living world
The number and relative abundance of species in a biological community.
The range of genetic material present in a gene pool or population of a species.
A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals.
A species whose numbers are so small that the species is at risk of extinction
Splitting of ecosystems into small fragments
Increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web
plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native
Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment
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