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43 terms

Biology Chapter 22

STUDY
PLAY
Darwin's formation of evolution
descent from a common ancestor & natural selection
natural selection
populations can change if some traits one better than others
evolutionary adaptation
inheritance of useful traits that enhance survival & reproduction
evolution
genetic composition changed over time
natural theology
the study of nature to reveal God's plan
taxonomy
the branch of biology that names & classifies organisms: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family (Sub-Family), Genus, Species (SubSpecies)
fossils
relics of past organisms, preserved on rocks
sedimentary rocks
formed from sand & mud under seas, lakes, etc.
paleontology
study of fossils to trace evolutionary history
catastrophism
each boundary between stratums = catastrophy. EX: different fossils signify flood/drought/fire
gradualism
change due to slow continuous progress
uniformitarianism
geological process has not changed during Earth's history
descent with modification
evolution: unity of life; all organisms are related through descent
artificial selection
breeding of domesticated plants & animals
homology
similar characteristics resulting from common ancestry
anatomical homologies
same bone structure; skeletal elements
homologous structures
anatomical signs of evolution
vestigial organs
structures of importance to organisms
embryotical homologies
similarities in embryotic development
molecular homologies
similar basic DNA & RNA codes
biogeography
geographic distribution of species
endemic
animals & plants only found in one location of the world
The ideas of Hutton & Lyall that Darwin incorporated into his theory pertained to
the age of Earth & gradual change
Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based?
Poorly adapted individuals never leave offspring
Which of the following would provide the best information for distinguishing phylogenetic relationships between several species that are almost identical in anatomy?
molecular comparisons of DNA & amino acid sequence
Which of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification?
South American temperate plants were more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe
Darwin synthesized information from several sources in developing his theory of evolution by natural selection. Which of the following did not influence his thinking?
Mendel's paper describing the basic principles of inheritence
In science, the term theory generally applies to an idea that
attempts to explain many related phenomena
Within a few weeks of treatment with the drug 3TC, a patient's HIV population consists entirely of 3TC-resistant viruses. How can this result best be explained?
A few drug-resistant viruses were present at the start of the treatment & natural selection increased their frequency
The smallest biological unit that can evolve over time is
a population
Which of the following ideas of is common to both Darwin's & Lamarck's theories of evolution?
Evolutionary adaptation results from interactions between organisms & their environments
Which f the following pairs of structures is least likely to represent homology?
The bark of a tree & the protective covering of a lobster
What were the two main parts in Darwin's The Origin of Species?
Descent of diverse species from common ancestors & natural selection as the mechanism of evolution
Darwin's phrase for evolution, _____ with _____, captured the idea that an ancestral species could diversify into many descendant species by the accumulation of different _____ to various environments.
descent, modification, adaptations
To Cuvier, the differences in fossils from different strata were evidence for
local catastrophic events such as droughts or floods
Darwin proposed that new species evolve from ancestral forms by
the gradual accumulation of adaptations to changing or different environments
The best description of natural selection is
the reproductive success of the members of a population best adapted to the environment
The remnants of pelvic & leg bones in a snake
are vestigial structures
The hypothesis that whales evolved from land-dwelling ancestors is supported by
fossils of extinct whales found in Egypt & Pakistan that had small hind limbs
Darwin's claim that all of life descended from a common ancestor is best supported with evidence from
molecular biology
What might you conclude from the observation that the bones in your arm and hand are similar to the bones that make up a bat's wing?
bones in bat wing = homologous to bones in arm & hand
Example of convergent evolution
similarities between the marsupial sugar glider & the eutherian flying squirrel
Chimpanzees & humans share many of the same genes, indicating that
the two groups share a relatively recent common ancestor