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The following statements describe something about the body structures or functions of fungi. Identify those statements that are correct.
Select all that apply.
A.] Mycelia are made up of small-diameter hyphae that form an interwoven mass, providing more surface area for nutrient absorption.
B.] Some fungi secrete digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb the digested nutrients.
C.] Nutrients can flow through the entire mycelium in fungi with coenocytic hyphae, but not in fungi with septate hyphae.
D.] Some fungi can grow as either filamentous or single-celled forms.
E.] All fungi are heterotrophs; some species live as decomposers and others as symbionts.
F.] Cellulose gives rigidity and strength to the cell walls of fungi

A, B, D & E

Select the correct statement(s) about the origin of fungi.Select all that apply.
A.] Multicellularity probably arose independently in fungi and animals.
B.] Fungi evolved after the first plants colonized land.
C.] Fungi are more closely related to plants than to animals.


Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution?

flagellated spores

For several decades now, amphibian species worldwide have been in decline. A significant proportion of the decline seems to be due to the spread of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Chytrid sporangia reside within the epidermal cells of infected animals, animals that consequently show areas of sloughed skin. They can also be lethargic, which is expressed through failure to hide and failure to flee. The infection cycle typically takes four to five days, at the end of which zoospores are released from sporangia into the environment. In some amphibian species, mortality rates approach 100%; other species seem able to survive the infection.

The chytrid sporangia reside within the amphibian epidermal cells. Consequently, which term(s) apply to Bd?
1. ectosymbionts
2. parasites
3. commensals
4. pathogens
5. endosymbionts

2,4 & 5

Plasmogamy can directly result in which of the following?
1. cells with a single haploid nucleus
2. heterokaryotic cells
3. dikaryotic cells
4. cells with two diploid nuclei

2 or 3

Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete, Neurospora crassa, contain 14 chromosomes. A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis, followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis, producing a total of eight ascospores.
What is the ploidy of a single mature ascospore?


The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to

an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition

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