20 terms

russian revolution

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Soviet
council that was the primary unit of government in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and that officially performed both legislative and executive functions at the all-union, republic, province, city, district, and village levels.
Trotsky
Communist theorist and agitator, a leader in Russia's October Revolution in 1917 and later commissar of foreign affairs and of war in the Soviet Union (1917-24). In the struggle for power following Vladimir Ilich Lenin's death, however, Joseph Stalin emerged as victor, while Trotsky was removed from all positions of power and later exiled (1929). He remained the leader of an anti-Stalinist opposition abroad until his assassination by a Stalinist agent.
Lenin
Founder of the Russian Communist Party, leader of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and architect and builder of the Soviet state.
Stalin
Soviet Communist leader and head of the USSR from the death of V. I. Lenin (1924) until his own death
Nicholas II
The last emperor of RussiaHis disastrous war with Japan (1904-05), however, led to the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the creation of the Duma (parliament). The autocratic emperor unwisely took personal charge of the armies during World War I Nicholas II abdicated on March 15, 1917. He and his entire family were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918
Duma
Russian name for a representative body, particularly applied to the Imperial Duma established as a result of the Russian Revolution of 1905. The parliamentary organization of 1906, largely the work of Count Witte, provided for a state council (an upper house, with some members appointed by the czar and others elected by the nobility, the zemstvos, the clergy, trade and industry, and the university faculties) and for the Duma (a lower house elected by a system of suffrage that was neither equal nor direct); no law was to be passed without the consent of the Duma.
Menshevik
member of the moderate minority faction of the Marxist Social Democratic Party in prerevolutionary Russia that advocated a gradual approach to social reform, in contrast to the Bolsheviks
Bolshevik
Russian Communist: a member of the radical group within the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party that became the Communist Party in 1918
Socialist Revolutionary
Socialist Revolutionaries, the opponents of the Communists.
Industrialization
n economics, condition marked by an increase in the importance of industry to an economy. The process of industrialization describes the transition from an agricultural society to one based on industry. During the process of industrialization, per capita income (level of income per person) rises and productivity level increases
Dialectic
Hegel believed that the evolution of ideas occurs through a dialectical process—that is, a concept gives rise to its opposite, and as a result of this conflict, a third view, the synthesis, arises. The synthesis is at a higher level of truth than the first two views.
Proletariat
class of industrial wage-earners: in Marxist theory, the class of industrial workers whose only asset is the labor they sell to an employer
Bloody Sunday
(January 9 [January 22, New Style], 1905), massacre in St. Petersburg, Russia, of peaceful demonstrators marking the beginning of the violent phase of the Russian Revolution of 1905. At the end of the 19th century, industrial workers in Russia had begun to organize; police agents, eager to prevent the Labour Movement from being dominated by revolutionary influences, formed legal labour unions and encouraged the workers to concentrate their energies on making economic gains and to disregard broader social and political problems.
October Manifesto
(Oct. 30 [Oct. 17, Old Style], 1905), in Russian history, document issued by the emperor Nicholas II that in effect marked the end of unlimited autocracy in Russia and ushered in an era of constitutional monarchy. Threatened by the events of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Nicholas faced the choice of establishing a military dictatorship or granting a constitution. On the advice of Sergey Yulevich Witte, he issued the October Manifesto, which promised to guarantee civil liberties (e.g., freedom of speech, press, and assembly), to establish a broad franchise, and to create a legislative body (the Duma []) whose members would be popularly elected and whose approval would be necessary before the enactment of any legislation.
April Theses
in Russian history, program developed by Lenin during the Russian Revolution of 1917, calling for Soviet control of state power; the theses, published in April 1917, contributed to the July Days uprising and also to the Bolshevik coup d'etat in October 1917.
Provisional Government
The Russian Revolution of February 1917 brought into power the Provisional Government, which promptly introduced freedom of speech and assembly and lifted the tsarist restrictions on minorities.
Kornilov
Imperial Russian general, who was accused of attempting to overthrow the provisional government established in Russia after the February Revolution of 1917 and to replace it with a military dictatorship.
Bolshevik Revolution
Oct. 24-25 [Nov. 6-7, New Style], 1917), the second and last major phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which the Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia, inaugurating the Soviet regime.
Feb/March Revolution
(March 8-12 [Feb. 24-28, old style], 1917), the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which the monarchy was overthrown and replaced by the Provisional Government. This government, intended as an interim stage in the creation of a permanent democratic-parliamentary polity for Russia, was in turn overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October (November, new style) of the same year. The October (November) Revolution, sometimes called the Bolshevik Revolution, established the Soviet Communist government in Russia.
Comintern
original name Mikhail Gruzenberg chief Comintern agent in China in the 1920s, who built the loosely structured Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) of Sun Yat-sen into a highly centralized Leninist-style organization.