96 terms

Computer Software

System and Application
PC System
5.window network/server
Phones system
*Peter Norton
Copy C:
Public Domain
A software program that is developed and sold for a profit
A software program that is distributed on the honor system: typically available free of charge but may require a small registration fee
A software program that is given away by the author for others to use free of charge
Public Domain
A software program that is not copyrighted
System software
Is the software used to run a computer. It runs in the background at all times, making it possible for you to use your computer.
Application software
Is the software that performs the specific task users want to accomplish using a computer.
Most Common
Word Processing, Spreadsheet, Database, Presentation Graphics, and Multimedia Software
Without system
Software and application software a computer is just a pile of hardware
Operating system
It is the most critical piece of software installed on the computer. The operating system is loaded into memory during the boot process
Boot process
Which is the first thing that occurs when you turn on a computer
*When you reboot a computer for the first time its a cold boot
* When you reset a computer and it reboot its a warm boot
To store a document on your hard drive
the operating system must perform the following steps:
*Make sure that the specified hard drive exists
*Verify that there is adequate space on the hard drive to store the document, and then store the document in that location.
*Update the hard drive's directory with the file name and dish location for that file so that the document can be retrieved when needed.
Without An operating system
no other program can run, and the computer cannot funcation
During the boot process
The essential portion, or core, of the operating system is called a kernel is loaded into memory
The kernel remains in memory while the computer is on so that it is always available, and other parts of the operating system are retrieved from the hard drive and loaded into memory when needed.
Before the boot process
Before the boot process end it reads an opening batch of instructions. These start-up instructions are tasks the operating system carries out each time the computer boots, such as prompting the user to sign in to an instant messaging program or launching a security program to run continually in the background to detect possible threats
Running operating system
All the programs running on one computer immediately after it boots and you can tell what programs are running in the background to by looking at the icons in the notification area
Device driver (driver)
A small program used to communicate with peripheral device, such as a monitor, printer, portable storage device, or keyboard.

*In addition, drivers often come on a cd packaged with the peripheral device, or they can be downloaded from the manufacturer's web site.
Plug and play
Most operating systems look for and recognize new devices each time the computer boots, using the plug and play standard.
File management
The task of keeping track of the files stored on a computer so they can be retrieved when needed
The ability of an operating system to have more than one program open at one time.

*One way computers operate more efficiently is to multitask

*because an operating system can multitask, you can edit a spreadsheet file while loading a web page
A sequence of instructions within a program that is independent of other threads

Spell checking
opening documents in a word processing processing program

*Operating systems that support multi-threading can rotate between multiple threads so that processing is completed faster and more efficiently, even though only one thread is executed by a single core at one time
Two or more CPU
If computer has two or more CPU's, techniques that perform operations simultaneously are possible.

*with multiprocessing, each cpus or core typically works on a different job

*with parallel processing, the cpus or cores usually work together to complete one job more quickly
A processing technique in which multiple processors or multiple processing cores in a single computer each work on a different job
Parallel Processing
A processing technique in which multiple processors or multiple processing cores in a single computer work together to complete one job more quickly
Multiprocessing and Parallel Processing
Are both techniques that use multiple processors or cores that work together to perform tasks more efficiently

*multiprocessing is supported by most operating systems and is used with personal computers that have multi-core cpus, as well as with servers and mainframe computers that multi-core cpus and or multiple cpus

*Parallel processing is used most often with supercomputers and supercomputering cluster
Sequential Processing
Tasks are performed one right after the other
SimUtaneous Processing
Multiple tasks are performed at the exact same time
(RAM), can help speed up processing and allocates RAM to programs as needed and then reclaims that memory when the program is closed
Virtual Memory
A memory management technique frequently used by operating systems that uses a portion of the computers hard drive as additional RAM

*when the amount of RAMS required exceeds the amount of RAM available, the operating system moves portions of data or programs the operating system over portions of data or programs from RAM to the virtual memory area of the hard drive which is called the page file or swap file

*virtual memory allows you to use more memory than is physically available on our computer, but using virtual memory is slower than using just RAM
Page file (swap file)
The virtual memory area of a hard drive
An area in RAM or on the hard drive designated to hold input and output on their way into or out of the system

*examples a print buffer stores documents that are waiting to be printed
The process of placing items in a buffer so they can be retrieved by the appropriate device when needed
Print spooling
Print spooking allows multiple documents to be sent to the printer at one time and to print, one after the other, in the background while the computer and user are performing other tasks.
Print queue
The documents waiting to be printed are in a print queue, which designates the order in which the documents will be printed
Graphical user interface (GUI)
A graphically based user interface that allows a user to communicate instructions to the computer by clicking icons or commands on the screen
Command line interface
A text-based user interface that requires the user to communicate instructions to the computer by typing commands

*Like DOS, UNIX, Linux
Personal operating system (desktop operating system)
An operating system designed to be installed on a single computer
Server operating system (network operating system)
An operating system designed to be installed on a network server to grant multiple users access to a network and its resoources
Mobile Operating system
An operating system designed to be used with mobile phones and other mobile devices
Embedded operating system
An operating system that is built into devices such as consumer kiosks, cash registers, cars, and consumer electronics
DOS (Disk Operating System)
The dominant operating system for personal computers during the 1980s and early 1990s

*used a command line interface, although later versions of DOS supported a menu-driven interface

*The two primary forms of DOS are PC-DOS and MS-DOS
The predominant operating system for personal computers

*90% percent of the market
*Microsoft created the original version of windows-windows 1.0-in 1985 in an effort to meet the needs of users frustrated by having to learn and use dos commands
Was created originally for IBM PCs (and is owned by IBM)
Was created for use with IBM-compatible PCS.

*both versions were originally developed by Microsoft corporation, but neither version is updated any longer.
DOS is considered
Obsolete because it does not utilize a graphical user interface but some computers such as computers running the windows operating system, however, can still execute DOS commands and users can issue these commands using the command prompt window
Change directory (cd) command
changes to a new location on the current drive
Drive command
Changes to a new drive
Copy command
Copies files from one location to another
Directory (dIr) command
displays the files and folders in the current location
Windows Server
Is the version of Windows Designed for server use.

*which is a powerful web platform for web applications and web services; built-in visualization technologies; a variety of new security tools and enhancements; and streamlined configuration and management tools.
Mac OS
The proprietary operating system for computes made by Apple, Inc.

*it is based on the unix operating system and set the original standard for graphical user interfaces
Mac OS X Server
The server version of MAC OS X
A multi-user, multitasking operating system developed in the late 1960s at at&t bell laboratories as on operating system for mid-range servers
An open source operating system developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991 that is available without charge over the internet

*with a strong support from mainstream companies such as IBM,HP, Dell, and Novell
*Linus is pronounced with a short i sound-lih-nuks
Open source software
A program that the program owners allow anyone to modify
Windows Phone
The version of Windows designed for mobile phones
Windows Embeded
A family of operating systems based on windows that is designed primarily for consumer and industrial devices that are not personal computers
A Linux-Based operating system designed for mobile phones developed by open handset alliance
The mobile operating system designed for apple mobile phones and mobile deices
Blackberry OS
The operating system designed for blackberry deices
HP webos
A Linux-based mobile operating system developed for palm/hp devices
Symbian OS
A mobile operating system historically used with mobile phones, primarily used outside north america
Installed software
A software program that must be installed on a computer before it is run
A software program that is run directly from the internet
Wording Processing software
allows users to create and edit complex text-based documents that can also include images and other content
Spreadsheet software
provides users with a convenient means of creating documents containing complex mathematical calculations
Database software
allows user to store and organize vast amounts of data and retrieve specific information when needed
Software Suite
Related software programs (such as a group of graphics programs, utility programs, or office-related software) that are sold bundled together
Database Management system (DBMS or database software)
The type of programs used to create,maintain, and organize data in a database, as well as to retrieve information from it
Presentation Graphic
An image designed to visually enhance a presentation, such as an electronic slide show or a printed report
Presentation graphics software
The type of program used to create electronic slide shows that can be run on individual computers or presented to a large group using a data projector
An image,such as a digital photograph, clip art, a scanned drawing, or an original image created using a software program
Any application that contains more than one type of media; often used to refer to audio and video content
Graphics software
A program used to create or modify images; also called digital imaging software
Bitmap image
A graphic created by coloring the individual pixels in an image
Vector graphic
A graphic that uses mathematical formulas to represent image content instead of pixels
Media players
Are programs designed to play audio and video files available via a computer-such as music
Desktop publishing
The use of a personal computer to combine and manipulate text and images to create attractive documents that look as if they were created by a professional printer
Educational software
An application program designed to teach one or more skills
Reference software
An application program designed to provide information, such as an encyclopedia, a dictionary, or an atleas
Note-taking software
An application program used b both students and business-people
Web notebook
An online version of a note taking software program
Computer-aided design (CAD) software
An application program that enables users to design objects on the computer
Accounting software
An application program that is used to automate some accounting activites
Personal finance software
Accounting software that is commonly used at home by individuals
Project management software
An application program used to plan, schedule, track, and analyze the tasks involved in a project
Collaboration software
An application program that enables a group of individuals to work together on a project
Remote access software
An application program that enables individuals to access content on another computer they are authorized to access, via the internet
File sending applications
A web-based program used to share single large files with others
Utility program
A software program that performs a specific task, usually related to managing or maintaining the computer system