33 terms

Mastering Questions - Ch. 16

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b. alter cell activity
What is the primary function of hormones?

a. cause allergic reactions
b. alter cell activity
c. stimulate meiosis
d. activate extracellular enzymes
d. enzymatic
Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?

a. hormonal
b. neural
c. humoral
d. enzymatic
b. none of these
Which of the following is a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary?

a. ADH
b. none of these
c. HGH
d. oxytocin
a. hormonal stimuli
What is required for the production of anterior pituitary gland hormones?

a. hormonal stimuli
b. all of these
c. humoral stimuli
d. neural stimuli (from the sympathetic division of the ANS)
b. thyroid hormone
Which hormone is the body's major metabolic hormone?

a. adrenocorticotropic hormone
b. thyroid hormone
c. parathyroid hormone
d. antidiuretic hormone
a. parathyroid hormone/calcitonin
Which of the following hormone pairs are antagonists that regulate blood calcium ion levels?

a. parathyroid hormone/calcitonin
b. insulin/glucagon
c. thyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone
d. FSH/LH
b. zona glomerulosa/mineralocorticoids
Which of the following pairs correctly match the adrenal gland zone or area with the class of hormones it produces?

a. medulla/glucocorticoids
b. zona glomerulosa/mineralocorticoids
c. zona fasciculata/gonadocorticoids
d. zona reticularis/catecholamines
c. insulin
Which pancreatic hormone functions to lower blood glucose levels?

a. Meibomian pancreatic polypeptide
b. somatostatin
c. insulin
d. glucagon
c. lungs
Which of the following organs does NOT produce a hormone or hormones?

a. kidneys
b. adipose tissue
c. lungs
d. heart
c. glucocorticoids
Which hormone(s) is/are essential to our ability to deal with stress?

a. mineralocorticoids
b. insulin
c. glucocorticoids
d. thyroxine
a. water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine
What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?

a. water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine
b. lipid-soluble hormones, such as thyroid hormones and cortisol
c. phosphodiesterase
Which intracellular substance degrades cAMP, thus inactivating the response to a hormone?

a. phospholipase C
b. protein kinase C
c. phosphodiesterase
d. adenylate cyclase
a. tyrosine kinase receptors
Growth factor hormones, such as insulin, bind to which type of receptor?

a. tyrosine kinase receptors
b. G proteins
c. intracellular receptors
c. activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP
Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins?

a. activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of phospholipase C, activation of DAG and IP3
b. activation of a G protein, tyrosine kinase receptor, phosphorylation of intracellular proteins
c. activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP
b. IP3
Which second messenger causes the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?

a. cAMP
b. IP3
c. tyrosine kinase
d. DAG
a. β receptors
Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?

a. β receptors
b. α2 receptors
c. α1 receptors
b. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
What tropic hormone stimulates cortisol from the adrenal gland?

a. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
b. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
c. growth hormone (GH)
d. luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
a. control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
What is the function of the ventral hypothalamic neurons?

a. control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
b. control secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
c. control secretion of oxytocin
d. control secretion of thyroid hormones
b. GH (growth hormone)
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are intermediary hormones stimulated by which of the following hormones?

a. prolactin (PRL)
b. GH (growth hormone)
c. oxytocin
d. thyroid hormones
b. oxytocin
Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine ("letdown") reflex?

a. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
b. oxytocin
c. cortisol
d. hypothalamus
Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, synthesized?

a. anterior pituitary
b. kidney
c. posterior pituitary
d. hypothalamus
c. negative feedback
What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the circulating levels of thyroid hormone?

a. thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
b. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
c. negative feedback
d. a circadian rhythm of release
c. epinephrine
Which of the following hormones is a part of the rapid response (rather than the prolonged response) to stress?

a. ADH (vasopressin)
b. cortisol
c. epinephrine
d. aldosterone
a. decreased insulin secretion
In response to stress, which of the following changes would happen?

a. decreased insulin secretion
b. decreased sweating
c. decreased cardiac output
d. decreased or difficulty breathing
d. heart palpitations
Which of the following are symptom(s) of pheochromocytoma?

a. low blood glucose
b. slow heart rate
c. cool, dry skin
d. heart palpitations
c. Cushing's disease
Choose which condition has all of the following symptoms: hypertension, hyperglycemia, and a "moon face."

a. pheochromocytoma
b. Addison's disease
c. Cushing's disease
c. ADH (vasopressin)
What hormone also aids the stress response by promoting water retention and acting as a vasoconstrictor?

a. cortisol
b. angiotensin II
c. ADH (vasopressin)
d. aldosterone
e. The pancreas releases insulin.
When blood glucose levels are high

a. The liver releases insulin.
b. The pancreas releases glucose.
c. The pancreas releases glucagon.
d. The liver releases glucagon.
e. The pancreas releases insulin.
d. Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
A liver cell responds to insulin by

a. Breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose.
b. Releasing glucagon.
c. Releasing insulin.
d. Taking in glucose and converting it to glucagon.
d. Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
d. Liver cells.
What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?

a. Liver cells and cells in the pancreas.
b. Muscle cells.
c. Cells in the pancreas.
d. Liver cells.
e. Intestinal cells.
a. Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
Body cells that respond to insulin include

a. Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
b. Intestinal cells only.
c. Liver cells and muscle cells only.
d. Liver cells only.
e. Muscle cells only.
c. The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
When blood glucose levels are low

a. The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.
b. Liver cells convert more glucose to glycogen.
c. The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
c. homeostasis.
The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called

a. diabetes.
b. negative feedback.
c. homeostasis.
d. positive feedback.
e None of the above.
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