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is a permanent change in behavior that results from experience.

classical conditioning

is a type of learning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired with a stimulus that causes reflexive behavior and,in time, is sufficient to produce a behavior.

unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus elicits an automatic response without requiring prior learning.

conditioned stimulus

an originally neutral stimulus that aquires significance through "conditioning" of repeated pairings with an UCS.

unconditioned response

is the reflexive reponse elicited by a particular stimulus.

conditioned response

response that depends on or is conditioned on pairing with unconditioned stimulus.

forward conditioning

the UCS immediatly follows the CS.

avoidance learning

learning that occurs when a CS is paired unpleasent US that leads the organism to try to avoid the CS.


irrational fearof specific objects or sitiuiation.

condioned emotional response

an emotional response elicited previously neutral stimulus.

biological preparedness

built in readiness for certain condition stimuli to elicit certain CR so that less learning id necessary to produce conditioning.


is a built in disinclination for certain conditioned stimuli to elicit particular conditioned response.


is a process by which a CR comes to be eliminated through repeated pairing of CS without the presence of US.

spontanous recovery

the process by which the CS will again elicit the CR after extinction has occured.

Stimulus discrimination

is the ability to distinguish among similar CS and to respond to actual CS.

stimulus generlization

is tendency for the CR elicited by the neutral similar that are alike but not identical to CS.

operant conditioning

is the process by which a behavior becoomes associated with its consequnces.

law of effect

states that actions that subsequently lead to the satisfying state of affairs are more like to be repeated


the process by which consequences lead to increase and liklihood that response will occur again.

positive reinforcement

add a desirable stimulus, occurs when a desired reinforcer is presented after a behavior.


is an object that comes after a reponse that changes the likelyhood of recurrence. it makes the response more likely to occur again.

negative reinforcement

ocurrs when an unpleasent event or circumstance is removed following a a desired behavior.


is an unpleasent that occurs as a consequence of behavior that decreases the liklihood of the behavior ocurring again.

negative punishment

occurs a behavior leads to a removal a pleasent event or circumstance.

positive punishment

occurs when a behavior leads an undesired consequence.

primary reinforcer

an event or an object is inherently reinforcing.

secondary reinforcer

an event or object reinforcing but does not inherently satisfy a need.

delayed reinforcement

reniforcement that is given some period of time after behavior is exhibited.


is the ability to generlize to similar stimuli and from a learned response to a similar response.


is the ability to distinguish btw the desired response and a similar but undesirable response.

spontanous recovery

is the process by which an old response reappears if there is a break after extinction.


isi the fading out of a response, following a intial burst of behavior, after the withdrawal of reinforcement.


is the gradual process of reinforcing organism or behavior that closer to the desired behavior.

continuous reinforcement

is a reinforcement given for every desired response.

partial reinforcement

is reinforcement that is given from time to time.

interval schedual

a partial reinforcement schedule based on time.

ratio schedule

a partial reinforcement schedule based on specified number of emitted responses

cognitive learning

is the aquisition of learning that often is not immediatly acted on but is stored for later use.

insight learning

the process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs

observational learning

learning that ocurrs through watching others.


is a process in which a person learns new behaviors by observing ppl.


Becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly

associative learning

learning by association

ivan pavlov

a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning

trace conditioning

the presentation of the CS, followed by a short break, followed by the presentation of the US

vladmir bechterev

classical conditioning on avoidance

watson and reyner

condtioned emotional response

higher order conditioning

a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus

systematic desensitization

a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety.

evaluative conditioning

change your liking or evaluation of the CS

edward thorndike

behaviorism; Law of Effect-relationship between behavior and consequence and used puzzle box.

B.F skinner

behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons and skinner box

albert bendura

social learninig theory

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