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53 terms

learning chap 6/2

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Learning
is a permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
classical conditioning
is a type of learning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired with a stimulus that causes reflexive behavior and,in time, is sufficient to produce a behavior.
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus elicits an automatic response without requiring prior learning.
conditioned stimulus
an originally neutral stimulus that aquires significance through "conditioning" of repeated pairings with an UCS.
unconditioned response
is the reflexive reponse elicited by a particular stimulus.
conditioned response
response that depends on or is conditioned on pairing with unconditioned stimulus.
forward conditioning
the UCS immediatly follows the CS.
avoidance learning
learning that occurs when a CS is paired unpleasent US that leads the organism to try to avoid the CS.
Phobia
irrational fearof specific objects or sitiuiation.
condioned emotional response
an emotional response elicited previously neutral stimulus.
biological preparedness
built in readiness for certain condition stimuli to elicit certain CR so that less learning id necessary to produce conditioning.
contraprepardness
is a built in disinclination for certain conditioned stimuli to elicit particular conditioned response.
extinction
is a process by which a CR comes to be eliminated through repeated pairing of CS without the presence of US.
spontanous recovery
the process by which the CS will again elicit the CR after extinction has occured.
Stimulus discrimination
is the ability to distinguish among similar CS and to respond to actual CS.
stimulus generlization
is tendency for the CR elicited by the neutral similar that are alike but not identical to CS.
operant conditioning
is the process by which a behavior becoomes associated with its consequnces.
law of effect
states that actions that subsequently lead to the satisfying state of affairs are more like to be repeated
reinforcement
the process by which consequences lead to increase and liklihood that response will occur again.
positive reinforcement
add a desirable stimulus, occurs when a desired reinforcer is presented after a behavior.
reinforcer
is an object that comes after a reponse that changes the likelyhood of recurrence. it makes the response more likely to occur again.
negative reinforcement
ocurrs when an unpleasent event or circumstance is removed following a a desired behavior.
punishment
is an unpleasent that occurs as a consequence of behavior that decreases the liklihood of the behavior ocurring again.
negative punishment
occurs a behavior leads to a removal a pleasent event or circumstance.
positive punishment
occurs when a behavior leads an undesired consequence.
primary reinforcer
an event or an object is inherently reinforcing.
secondary reinforcer
an event or object reinforcing but does not inherently satisfy a need.
delayed reinforcement
reniforcement that is given some period of time after behavior is exhibited.
generalization
is the ability to generlize to similar stimuli and from a learned response to a similar response.
discrimination
is the ability to distinguish btw the desired response and a similar but undesirable response.
spontanous recovery
is the process by which an old response reappears if there is a break after extinction.
exinction
isi the fading out of a response, following a intial burst of behavior, after the withdrawal of reinforcement.
shaping
is the gradual process of reinforcing organism or behavior that closer to the desired behavior.
continuous reinforcement
is a reinforcement given for every desired response.
partial reinforcement
is reinforcement that is given from time to time.
interval schedual
a partial reinforcement schedule based on time.
ratio schedule
a partial reinforcement schedule based on specified number of emitted responses
cognitive learning
is the aquisition of learning that often is not immediatly acted on but is stored for later use.
insight learning
the process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs
observational learning
learning that ocurrs through watching others.
modeling
is a process in which a person learns new behaviors by observing ppl.
habitiuation
Becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly
associative learning
learning by association
ivan pavlov
a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning
trace conditioning
the presentation of the CS, followed by a short break, followed by the presentation of the US
vladmir bechterev
classical conditioning on avoidance
watson and reyner
condtioned emotional response
higher order conditioning
a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
systematic desensitization
a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety.
evaluative conditioning
change your liking or evaluation of the CS
edward thorndike
behaviorism; Law of Effect-relationship between behavior and consequence and used puzzle box.
B.F skinner
behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons and skinner box
albert bendura
social learninig theory