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20 terms

Greco: Heredity

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heredity
the passing of traits or physical characteristics from parent to offspring
genes
These are the factors that control a trait. The parts of DNA that carry hereditary instructions located on chromosomes and passed from parent to offspring.
genotype
the inherited combination of alleles, the genetic makeup of a trait
phenotype
what the offspring's characteristics will look like or its physical appearance
probability
a number that describes how likely an event will occur
male sex cell
sperm
female sex cell
eggs or ovum
fertilization
a new organism begins to form when egg and sperm join.
Punnett square
a chart that shows all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross.
homozygous or purebred
an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait (TT)
heterozygous or hybrid
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait. (Tt)
asexual reproduction
requires only one parent where the offspring has all of the same traits of that one parent.
sexual reproduction
requires two parents and the offspring has a combination of the traits from both parents.
mutation
any change in a gene or chromosome
vegetative reproduction
Type of reproduction in which new plants grow from vegetative parts such as roots, stems, and leaves
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
fragmentation
is the process of asexual reproduction where the organism splits into two or more fragments. Those fragments will grow into copies of the same organism that split.
budding
asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
parthenogenesis
Asexual reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs.
Gregor Mendel
The father of genetics who cross-pollinated plants.