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the passing of traits or physical characteristics from parent to offspring


These are the factors that control a trait. The parts of DNA that carry hereditary instructions located on chromosomes and passed from parent to offspring.


the inherited combination of alleles, the genetic makeup of a trait


what the offspring's characteristics will look like or its physical appearance


a number that describes how likely an event will occur

male sex cell


female sex cell

eggs or ovum


a new organism begins to form when egg and sperm join.

Punnett square

a chart that shows all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross.

homozygous or purebred

an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait (TT)

heterozygous or hybrid

an organism that has two different alleles for a trait. (Tt)

asexual reproduction

requires only one parent where the offspring has all of the same traits of that one parent.

sexual reproduction

requires two parents and the offspring has a combination of the traits from both parents.


any change in a gene or chromosome

vegetative reproduction

Type of reproduction in which new plants grow from vegetative parts such as roots, stems, and leaves

binary fission

a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size


is the process of asexual reproduction where the organism splits into two or more fragments. Those fragments will grow into copies of the same organism that split.


asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism


Asexual reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs.

Gregor Mendel

The father of genetics who cross-pollinated plants.

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