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57 terms

7th Grade Science - Cells / Eukaryotic Cells

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Cell wall
A rigid structure that gives support to a cell
Cellulose
The cell wall of most plants and algae is made of this.
Chitin
The cell wall of some fungi is made of this.
Cell membrane
The protective phospholid barrier that covers a cell's surface and encloses a cell.
Lipids
A group of compounds that do not dissolve in water.
Hydrophobic
water fearing
hydrophilic
water-loving
Hydrophilic heads
the heads of phospholipids that are are attracted to water
Cytoskeleton
This helps a cell retain its' shape and move in its environment.
Nucleus
Large organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains DNA.
Double membrane
what the nucleus is enclosed in
ribosomes
small round structures that make proteins
Smallest of all organelles
ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum
a system of folded internal membrane in which proteins, lipids and other materials are constructed
Rough ER
This is usually found near the nucleus. they have ribosomes.
Smooth ER
This is the ER which lacks ribosomes.
Mitochondrion
This is the main power source of a cell. It is surrouned by two membranes and is the site of cellular respiration.
ATP
Energy released by mitochondria is stored in this substance.
Inner membrane of a cell's mitochondria
Where most ATP is made.
Chloroplasts
They harness and use the energy of the sun to make sugar.
Chlorophyll
This is a green pigment.
Golgi complex
organelle that packages, and distributions proteins out of the cell.
vesicle
a small cavity of sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell. They also move material within a cell.
Lysosomes
A cell organelle that contains digestvie enzymes.
Vacuole
The organelle that stores water and other materials. It also stores enzymes.
Cell
Smallest unit that can perform all processes necessary for life
Robert Hooke
Looked at cork cells (cell walls) and coined the word cell in 1665.
Anton van Leeuwenhook
Discovered one-celled organisms (which he called animalacules) after looking at pond water under a microscope.
Theodor Schwann
Discovered all animals are made of cells. Wrote cell theory
cell theory
This states that all organisms are made up of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, new cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells.
Rudolf Virchow
Concluded that new cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells
organelle
one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perform a specific function.
nucleus
In a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
Example of big cell
Yolk of an egg
surface area to volume ratio
Ratio of a cell's outside area to its internal volume.
Nutrients for a chick
White and yolk of a chicken egg.
If surface area is 24 and volume is 8, what is the surface area to volume ratio.
3
If surface area is 24 and volume is 6, what is the surface area to volume ratio.
4
If surface area is 30 and volume is 6, what is the surface area to volume ratio.
5
If surface area is 20 and volume is 5, what is the surface area to volume ratio.
4
If surface area is 32 and volume is 4, what is the surface area to volume ratio.
8
If surface area is 40 and volume is 5, what is the surface area to volume ratio.
8
If surface area is 25 and volume is 5, what is the surface area to volume ratio.
5
If surface area is 40 and volume is 10, what is the surface area to volume ratio.
4
prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. They are classified as archaebacteria and eubateria.
eukaryotic cell
cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
archaebacteria
bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen
Flagellum
a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move
three types of archaebacteria
heat-loving, salt-loving, methane-making.
extremophiles
organisms that live in extreme environments like heat-loving and salt-loving creatures
Multicellular
This means many cells
When cells were discovered
1600's
Instrument that helped cells be discovered
Microscopes
Why cells are small
A cell's surface area to volume ratio limits the size of the cells.
Two basic kinds of cells
prokaryote cells and eukaryotic cells
eukaryotes
They can be single celled or multi-celled organisms.
eubateria
"true" bacteria, can cause diseases. This and archaebacteria are prokaryote cells.