1- The transmission of ancient scholarship to the Islamic world
(Mesopotamia & Egypt (& China) → Athens → Alexandria, Persia, and India → Syria to Muslims, 3000 BCE - 750 CE)
2- Islamic development of the ancient scholarship, 750-950 CE
3- Transmission of the developed Islamic scholarship to Western Europe and Mongol China, 975 - 1600 CE
4- Western development of science and scholarship in the Renaissance and 'Scientific Revolution', 1500-1970
5- Translations of limited Latin and Italian material back into Turkish to supplement existing Arabic, Persian and Turkish works, 1700-1970.