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Treaty of Campo Formio
Took Austria out of the war with France and crowned Napoleon's campaign with success
Napoleon wanted to attack the British through Egypt but his fleet was destroyed by Horatio Nelson
Constitution of Year VIII
Established Napoleon as the First Consul, granted universal male suffrage and a system of checks and balances
Between Napoleon and Pope Pius. Required refractory clergy and those who accepted revolution to resign. State had power to name bishops and pay salaries, declared "Catholicism religion of majority"
Safeguarded all forms of property, abolished birth privileges, kept workers organizations forbidden, abolished primogeniture
Battle of Trafalgar
British destroyed French/Spanish fleets. Ended French hopes of invading Britain. Guaranteed British control of sea
Issued by Napoleon, forbade allies from importing British goods, hoped to drive Britain from war
Treaty of Tilsit
Confirmed French gains, Prussia lost half of its territory, Prussia and Russia became secret allies of Napoleon
Napoleon planned to cut off all British trade, but British economy was able to survive
Spanish War of Liberation
France and Spain had traditionally been allies, however Napoleon wanted to place his brother Joseph on the throne. Defeated by guerrilla warfare
Austrian War of Liberation
French defeated Austrians, and caused Austria to lose much territory in Peace of Schonbrunn
Reasons for failure: Invasion of Russia
Russians used "scorched-earth" tactics and fled Moscow, cut off French supply lines, attacked during Russian winter
Congress of Vienna
Members were Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia. Restored balance of power in Europe, established Netherlands, Prussia given territory on Rhine River, Austrians took control of Italy.
Reaction against Enlightenment. Saw imagination supplementing reason, many urged revival of Christianity
Sturm and Drang
"Storm and Stress", movement which rejected influence of French rationalism on German literature, dramatic German poetry
An inner command to act in every situation as one would have all other people always act in the same situation, belief of Kant
Believed childhood was a period of imagination, held a theory of the soul's preexistence in celestial state before creation
Little sympathy for imagination, skeptical and mocking, rejected old traditions, championed personal liberty
Religion neither dogma nor ethics. Dependence on infinite reality. Christianity "religion of religions"
Revived German folk culture, resented French cultural dominance, Human brings develop organically.
Thesis- Main set of ideas, Antithesis-challenges thesis, Synthesis-eventually becomes new thesis
Views of Islam
Most Romantics viewed Islam in unfavorable political light. Thought that Islam already fulfilled its role in history. Thomas Carlyle, British historian, supported Islam.
Belief that a nation composed of people who are joined together by bonds of common language, culture, and history should be administered by same government
Statesmen who epitomized conservatism were..
Austrian prince Metternich and British Viscount Castlereagh
Frederick William III
Promised his people constitutional government, but instead created Council of State
Issued by Metternich, dissolved Burschenschaften, provided university inspectors and press censors
Limited subjects that constitutional chambers could discuss, asserted right of monarchs to resist demands of constitutionalists
Forbade public meetings, raised fines for rebellious actions, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited training of armed groups, sped up trials of political agitators, allowed local officials to search homes in disturbed countries
Provided for hereditary monarch, bicameral legislative (2 part), guaranteed Dec. Of Rights of Man, religious toleration
Concert of Europe
Prevented one nation for taking a major action in international affairs without obtaining assent of others
Spanish revolution of 1820
Ferdinand VII promised to govern by constitution but ruled alone, Spain gained Latin America colonies
Greek Revolution of 1821
Supported by Romantic writers, Greeks wanted revival of democracy and separation from Ottoman Empire, independence granted in Treaty of London
Serbians wanted independence from Ottoman Empire, became under collective protection of great powers and special protection of Russia
Revolution in Haiti
Led by former slave Toussiant L'Ouverture, result of secret conspiracy among slaves, France abolished slavery in Haiti, one of only successful slave revolts
Creoles discontent with Spanish policies favoring Peninsulares, Creole juntas (political committees) claimed the right to rule regions of Latin America
San Martin in Rio de la Plata
Martin led army over Andes Mountains, achieved independence of Chile, Peru and Argentina, became protector of Peru
Independence in New Spain
led by Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Marie Morelos, demanded fundamental social reforms, united conservative groups, Mexico declared independent of Spain
Joao fled to Brazil, then returned to Portugal, son Dom Pedro(king of Brazil) sympathized with Brazilian nationalists, declared independence, no wars, peaceful
Russian secret society members failed to swear allegiance oath to Nicholas I, Nicholas ordered cavalry to attack members, five executed, first rebellion in modern Russian history with specific political goals
Autocracy of Nicholas I
Knew Russian needed improvement but afraid of change, turned his back on reform, imposed censorship and secret police forces
Revolt in Poland
Poland granted Constitutional government, formed Nationalist movement but didn't succeed, still under control by Russia
Reactionary policies of Charles X
Lowered interest rates on government bonds, restored rule of primogeniture, punished sacrilege with death
Reign of Louis Philippe
Liberal monarchy, Catholicism became religion of majority rather than official religion, censorship abolished, liberal monarchy displayed no sympathy for lower classes, retained city of Algiers
Independence of Belgium
Belgium wanted independence from Dutch, British foreign minister Lord Palmerston persuaded to allow Belgium as independent
Catholic Emancipation Act
Roman Catholics could become members of Parliament, ended Anglican dominance
Great Reform Bill
Expanded size of English Electorate, increased number of voters by 50%, new boroughs created, laid foundations for further reforms, made revolution in Britain unnecessary
During the nineteenth century, nationalists challenged the political status quo in all of the following except ...
The real goal of early nineteenth century political liberals was...
Political reform based on private property
The Four Ordinances issued by Charles X did all of the following except...
put an end to future elections
The Great Reform Bill of 1832 was finally passed because
The King threatened to alter the structure of the House of Lords
Under Metternich's leadership in the early 1820's, Austria moved to suppress revolutions in...
Spain and Italy
Napoleons Concordat with the Catholic Church accomplished all except..
Established Roman Catholicism as the only legitimate religion in France
After Prussia's defeat at Jenna, many German intellectuals urged
resistance to Napoleon on the basis of German nationalism
With the Napoleonic Code of`804, all of the following were true under French Law except
Primogeniture was established
Napoleons real reason for establishing the Bonapartist dynasty in 1804 was
It represented a natural expression of his ambition
Which statement best describe Napoleons treatments of the relatives he placed under control of European kingdoms
He gave them orders and expected them to be carried out
Which of the following would not be associated with the reforms of the Napoleonic Code as it affected France and much of Europe
Class distinctions were reinforced
In the years before Napoleon declared himself emperor, he declared all of the following except
promoted Jacobin leaders
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