Changes the text of the US Constitution
13, 14, and 15
gave former slaves the rights of citizenship and equal protection under the law
gave right to vote to all male citizens of all races
gave right to vote to women
gave right to vote to 18yr olds
program established to correct past injustices to minorities, requiring the hiring of more women and minorities
Plessy v. Ferguson
"Separate but equal"; Made segregation legal
Brown v. Board of Education
"Separate was inherently unequal"; required integration of schools
University of California v. Bakke
Cannot use racial quota, but can take race into account as a factor; affirmative action plans are okay if designed properly
a sum of money to be paid by people and business to the government to be used for public services
Using government spending and taxation to regulate the economy
A general rise in prices
an economic downturn
using interest rates and reserve requirements to regulate the economy
the amount of money in public hands
Federal Reserve System
controls the nation's money supply
Money paid for the use of money lent
percentage of deposits that banks must keep in their reserve that is not loan able
special tax on imported goods
restrictions on a number of goods that foreign countries can import to us
a complete prohibition of trade with another country
protecting US products by using tariffs, quotas, etc.
No trade restrictions between countries
concentration production on the kinds of goods & services a country produces best
Open Market Operations
buys and sells government bonds
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