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129 terms

Community Nutrition

STUDY
PLAY
Community
A group of people who are located in a particular space
Community Nutrition
A discipline that strives to prvent disease and to improve the health, nutrition, and well-being of individuals and glucose within communities
Policy
A course of action chosen by public authorities to address a given problem
Public Health
Focuses on protecting and promoting people's health through the actions of society
Bioterrism
The intentional release of disease-causing toxins, microorganisms, or other substances
Health
According to the World Health Organization, a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absense of disease
Health Promotion
The process of enabling people to achieve their maximum potential for good health
Intervention
A health promotion activity aimed at changing the behavior of a target audience
Risk Factors
Factors associated with an increased probability of acquiring a disease
Surveillance
An approach to collecting data on a population's health and nutritional status in which data collection occurs regularly and repeatedly
Community dietitian/public health nutritionist
Nutrition professionals who plan and evaluate food and nutrition programs, devekop food and nutrition policies, plan, implement and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention programs
Licensure
Dietitians practitioners are licensed to ensure that only qualified, trained professionals provide nutrition services or advice to individuals requiring or seeking nutrition counseling or information
Certification
Limits the use of particular titles to persons meeting predetermined requirements, but persons not certified can still practice the occupation or profession
Entrepreneurship
Creating something of value through the creation of organization
Entrepreneur
One who undertakes the risk of a business or enterprise
Intrapreneur
A risk taker whose job is located within corporation, company, and other organization
Sustainability
The capacity of being maintained over the long term in order to meet the needs of the present without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Sustainable Food Systems
Exists when production, processing, distribution, and consumptin are integrated and related practices that regenerate rather than degrate natural resources, are socially just and accessible, and support the development of local communities and economies
Grant
the act of providing a subsidy
Three major stages during grant development
1. Developing the Foundation, 2. Building the Grant Proposal, 3. Assembling the Final Product
Developing the foundation in a grant
Describing its goals, is it possible to achieve and in a timely manner, goals in line within 2020 goals, do they reflect the intended audience
Building the grant proposal
Components of the proposal- possible letter of intent, transmittal letter, abstract, grand narrative, goals and objective, methods, project design, human subject participation and, budget
Assembling the final product in a grant
Make sure there are no loose ends, follow instructions and directions
A mechanism to seek extramural funding
Grant
REP Grant
Request for proposal
RFA Grant
Request for approval
Letter if Intent (LOI)
One page concept of what you want to do before writing or completing the grant
What do you often use in a grant proposal as criteria?
Logic Model
What does a community nutritionist do?
Design policy, plan programs, coduct intervention, etc.
Community Assessment
Evaluating the community in terms of its health and nutritional status, its needs, resources, and the resources available to address those needs
Conducting a Community Nutritional Needs Assessment:
Define the nutritional problem, set the parameters of the assessment, collect data, analyze and interpret the data, share the findings of the assessment, set priorities, choose a plan of action
Dietary Assessment
Based on readings, identifying the types of dietary available- 24 hr recall, 3 day food record, food frequency questionairre
Best dietary assessment for people who have little knowledge of portion control
24 hour recall
Biochemical assessment
Measurement of biochemical functions (e.g. concentrations of nutrient by products or enzyme activities in the blood or urine) related to a nutrient's function (blood glucose for diabetes, cholesterol- HDL and LDL)
Anthropometry
measurement and study of the human body and its parts and capacities-- (height, weight, waist circumference, head circumference, skin folds, body mass index)
BMI
Weight in kilograms/2.2 divided by square of height in meters
Obesity
The presence of excess adipose (fatty) tissue in the body
Overweight
A milder form of obesity
Underweight BMI
<18.5
Normal BMI
18.5-24.9
Overweight BMI
25-29.9
Midpoint of overweight range
27.5
BMI for obesity class I
30-34.9
BMI for obesity class II
35-39.9
BMI for obesity class III
> or equal to 40
How many U.S. adults are obese?
1/3 (no state is below 20%)
Healthy People 2010 obesity goal
To lower obesity prevalence to 15%-- no state reached this goal
Nearly ____ of the states in our country have obesity rates of ____% or more
1/4 and 30
Obesity related conditions
Heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer
Medical costs associated with obesity in 2008 were...
$147 billion
Reasons for rising obesity?
Screen time, exercise, food procution system, increase in portion sizes
% weigh change=
(usual body weight - current body weight) / (usual weight) x 100 =
% usual weight=
(current weight/usual weight) x 100
Clinical Assessment
Evaluation for evidence of malnutrition consists of a medical history and a nutriton focused physical examination
Signs and symptoms of deficiency or excess
Hair, face and sensory organs, skin, nails, muscles, bones, teeth
Seeing brittle nails on fingers but not toes
Is environmental --- if nutritional you should see it on both
B12 can affect
Mental status
What goes down in the elderly?
B12 absorption-- the stomach acid and intrinsic factor go down so they cannot absorb it as well (some take a supplement after age 50)
Some B vitamins can affect...
Gaits
Sensitivity
The proportion of subjects with the disease or condition who have a positive test for the disease or condition
Specificity
The proportions of subjects in the sample without the disease who test negative for disease or condition
example of a highly specific test
Oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes status--rules it out or assures you you have it
Validity
The accuracy of the assessment, instrument or measure (weights/scales are examples)
Reliability
Ability to produce the same estime of dietary intake on two seperate occasions assuming diet did not change
YAHRSI
Young Adult Health Risk Screening Initiative done at UNH in the NUTR 400 class
Food Choices can be impacted by...
Food supply, season, food costs, household income, transportation, socioeconomic factors, food preferences, health beliefs, living conditions, attitudes, religious practices
When program planning or applying for a grant you need to consider both...
The mission of the organization offering the grand and your own organizations mission
Steps in program planning
1. Review results of needs assessment 2. define program goals and objectives, 3. develop the program, 4. define the management systems, 5. identify funding sources, 6. implement the program, 7. evaluate program elements and effectiveness
Three steps in developing the program
Design the intervention, design nutrition education, develop the marketing plan
Three types of objectives
Outcome objectives, process objectives, and sturcture objectives
Parts of the program to design & develop
Design the intervention, design the nutrition education, develop the marketing plan
Epidemiology
The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in specified populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems
Determinants of Disease
Age, sex, race, genetic makeup, nutrition status, physiological status
Environmental Factors
Living conditions, occupation, geographical location, lifestyle
Why do we do nurtitional epidemiology?
To understand disease causes, morbidity/mortatlity, prevalence & progression as well as discernment of diet, health, disease and relationship
1854 Cholera Epidemic
Severe and widespread cholera in London
Dr. John Snow's hypothesis
People were getting cholera through contaminated drinking water; an infectious agent-- he removed the water pump handle on Broad Street which slowly stopped the epidemic
Crude Birth Rate
Equal to the number of live births in a year divided by the total midyear population (then usually multiplied by 1,000)
Features of someone with FAS
flat midface, short nose, thin upper lip, mino ear abnormalities, etc.
BRFSS
A monthly, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survery of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalizsed population aged 18 and up
African American woman are _____ more likely to die of pregnancy-related complications than white women
4X
Women in the USA have a _____ risk of dying of pregnancy-related complications than those in ____ other countries
higher- 40
Risk
The probability or likelihood of an event occuring-in this case, the probability that people will acquire a disease
Prevalence
The number of existing causes of a disease or other condition in a given population
Saturated Fat
Solid at room temperature- most commonly found in meat and dairy products- known to lead to heart disease
Unsaturated Fat
Liquid at room temperature- known as good fat (two types- monounsaturated and polyunsaturated)- known to lower bad cholesterol without lowering good cholesterol
Monounsaturated Fats
Can help lower bad cholesterol (LDL) -extra virgin olive oils is an example- found in olive oil, sunflower oil, avocados, nuts, peanut butter
Transfat
an unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenation
Polyunsaturated Fats
Contain omega-3 fatty acids found in fish (tuna, salmon, halibut), as well as in corn, soybeans, walnuts and canola oil
Primary Prevention
Precent or correct risk factors (no disease)
Secondary prevention/intervention
Early detection referral and treatment (asymptomatic disease)
Tertiary intervention
Reduce complications (chronic disease)
Bulk of health is spnd on the ______ level
Tertiary intervention
Public Health
An organized effort to shape the environment to promote and protect the health of all people in the community
Great health achievements from 2001-2010
Vaccination, motor vehicle safety, safer work places, decline in deaths from heart disease and stroke, cancer prevention, etc.
Health
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not the mere absence of disease or infirmity
Key components of Community Nutrition
People- individuals served or targeted, Policy- course of action by public authorities to address a given problem or trend, Programs- Instruments used by nutritionists to improve status and health
Community Needs Assessment
An evaluation of the community in terms of its health and nutritional status, its needs, and the resources available to address those needs
Health Status
The condition of a populatio's or individual's health, including estimates of quality of life and physical and psychosocial functioning
Target Population
The population that is the focus of an assessment, study, ot intervention
Goals
Broad statements of what the activity or program is expected to acomplish
Objectives
Statements of outcomes and activities needed to reach a goal
Qualitative data
Data (such as opinions) that describe or explain, are considered subjective, and can be categorized or ranked but not quantified
Key informants
People who are "in the know" about the communtiy and whose opinions and insights can help direct the needs assessment
Stateholders
People who have a vested interest in identifying an addressing the nutritional problem
Quantitative Data
Numerical data (such as serum ferritin concentation, birth rate, and income) that can be measured and are considered objective
Vital statistics
Figures pertaining to life events, such as births, deaths, and marriages
Culture
The knowledge, beliefs, customs, laws, morals, art, and any other habits and skills acquired by humans as members of a society
Health Outcome
The effect of an intervention on the health and well-being of an individual or population
Social Group
A group of people who are interdependent and share a set of norms, beliefs, values or behaviors
Sample
A group of individuals whose beliefs, biological characteristics, or other features represent those of a larger population
Survey
A systematic study of a cross section of individuals who represent the target population
Nutrition Survey
An instrument designed to collect data on the nutritional status and dietary intake of a population group
Focus Group
An informal group of about 5 to 12 people who are asked to share their concerns, experiences, beliefs, opinions, or problems
Validity
The accuracy of the diet assessment instrument
Sensitivity
The proportion of individuals in the sample with the disease or condition who have a positive test for it
Specificity
The proportion of the individuals in the sample witout the disease or condition who have a negative test for it
Reliability
The repeatability or precision of an assessment instrument
Nutritional status indicator
A quantitative measure used as a guide to screen, diagnose, and evaluate interventions in individuals
Mission statement
A broad statement or declaration of an organization's purpose or reason for being
Intervention strategy
An appraoch for achieving a program's goals and objectives
Implementation
The set of activities directed toward putting a program into effect
Participation
The number of people who take part in a health promotion activity
Impact evaluation
The process of determining whether the program's methods and activities resulted in the desired immediate changes in the client
Formative evaluations
The process of testing and assessing certain elements of a program before it is implemented fully
Process evaluation
A measure of program activities or efforts that is, of how a program is implemented
Outcome evaluation
The process of measuring a program's effectiveness in changing one or more aspects of nutritional or health status
Structure evaluation
The process of determining adequacy of the internal processes and resources needed to deliver a program, including staff training, etc.
Fiscal or efficiency evaluation
The process of determining a programs benefits relative to its cost