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Based on Jones's Test Review * = needs more info (IF YOU KNOW IT PLEASE ADD IT!)

gold, God, glory

What are the three factors that encouraged exploration?


Who controlled early trade in the Mediterranean after the crusades?

conquered Ceuta in North Africa; founded navigation school in Portugal

What were Prince *HENRY's contributions to Portugal?

treaty between Spain and Portugal, agreed to imaginary line dividing Spanish and Portuguese land

What was the purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas?

Portugal, Spain, Dutch, English, French

What countries were involved in exploration?


Who became the first Ming emperor?

Zheng He

Who was the great admiral for the Chinese during their exploration?

Chinese scholar-officials complained waste of valuable resources

Why were Zheng He's voyages stopped?

Only gov. conduct foreign trade through 3 ports (but really smuggling flourished); Chinese oppose Christianity

How did the Chinese regard with foreign countries interested in trade and religion?


Who did the Qing make a vassal state to China?

Yuan --> Ming --> Qing

What is the order of dynastic rule in China from 1300s to 1700s?

Emperor --> Daimyo(landowners)/Shogon(actual ruler) --> Samurai Warriors (loyal to daimyo/shogoin) --> Peasants/Artisans/Merchants

What is the order of power within Japanese feudalism?

Unified Japan; sole ruler (shogon); moved capital to Edo (later Tokyo); "tamed" the daimyo"; founded "Tokugawa Shogunate" = stability in Japan

What are the achievements of Tokugawa Ieyasu?

kabuki theater (skits about modern urban life); paintings = woodblock prints (show city life); stories of self-made merchants/hardships of life; haiku poetry (images, not ideas)

What was the culture under the Tokugawa Shogunate?

Closed Country Policy (closed Japan from all Euro. customs and ideas)

What was Japanese policy toward European contact?

practice where one government department (monarch/dictator) has total power over the whole country

What is absolutism?

common defense of absolutism; idea that rulers were given right by God to control the whole country

What is "divine right"?


What is the lineage of the Bourbon Dynasty?

Cardinal Mazarin was true ruler when Louis was a "boy king"; ended 30 Years War (=France most powerful in Europe); increased taxes and strengthened central gov

What was the role of Cardinals during King Louis XIV's rule?

The Palace at Versailles; nobles forced to live and work here, intendants given more power = less power to nobles and more to himself

How did Louis XIV control his nobility?

invaded Spanish Netherlands (gained 12 towns); invaded Dutch Netherlands (gained several towns and region); War of the Spanish Succession (Bourbon dynasty power increases to Spain; other countries feel threatened)


What wars did Louis XIV involve in?


Family rule in Central Europe -- what countries did they rule, family name

Czar of Russia; created a secret police force (search for wife's "murderer") to kill nobles; took land from boyars (nobles) and gave to people he favored

Who was "Ivan the Terrible"?

Peter I; Czar of Russia; part of Romanov dynasty; reduced power of wealthy land owners and gave more power to low-ranking people; enforced a beard tax; made heavy taxes for his army; westernized Russia

Who was "Peter the Great"?

Line of Russian czars that ruled for 300 years; related to Ivan's wife Anastasia; restored order to Russia

What was the Romanov Dynasty?

James I --> Charles I --> Oliver Cromwell --> Charles II --> James II --> William and Mary

What is the order of the English Monarchy in the 17th century?

laws limit a ruler's power

What is a constitutional monarchy?

ignored Parliament; raised taxes without Parliament's consent; not get along with Puritan members of Parliament; authorized translation "King James Bible"

What occurred during James I's reign of England?

dissolved Parliament when they refused $; Petition of Right signed but ignored; dissolved Parliament; wanted same religion for England; Civil War between Royalists/Cavaliers (Charles's supporters) and Roundheads (Puritan supporters); put on public trial and execution

What occurred during Charles I's reign of England?

(not a monarch)
abolished monarchy and House of Lords; constitution drafted then destroyed = military dictator; crushed Ireland rebellion; promoted Puritan morality and abolished "sinful activities"; welcomed all regions (Jews!) except Catholics

What occurred during Oliver Cromwell's reign of England?

asked by newly formed Parliament to rule; restored monarchy = Restoration; Parliament passed habeas corpus

What occurred during Charles II's reign of England?

offended by appointing Catholics to high office; dissolved Parliament; daughter Mary (married to Protestant William of Orange) asked to overthrow him = Glorious Revolution

What occurred during James II's reign of England?

Glorious Revolution!; recognized Parliament as partner in gov.; constitutional monarchy; Bill of Rights limits royal power; cabinet developed

What occurred during William and Mary's reign of England?

Nicolaus Copernicus; sun-centered theory

Who developed the heliocentric theory, and what was it?

Danish astronomer; recorded data of movements of planets around sun

Who was Tycho Brahe?

Brahe's assistant; demonstrated Brahe's data through mathematics that planets revolve around sun

Who was Johannes Kepler?

law of pendulum; falling objects accelerates at fixed and predictable rate; dif. weights fall at same speed; builds telescope; supports Copernicus

What were Galileo's discoveries?

trial before Inquisition; church threatens torture = agrees his findings are false; house arrest until death

What happened to Galileo when he contradicted the church?

developed experimental method

Who was Francis Bacon?

linked algebra and geometry; everything doubted until proved by reason (helped advance scientific method)

Who was Rene Descartes?

objets attract to each other on earth and in universe

What did Newton discover?

all humans naturally selfish and wicked; gov. job to keep order; people give up some rights to gain order; best gov.: absolute monarchy

What were the main ideas of Thomas Hobbes?

people have natural rights (life, liberty, property); purpose of gov=protect natural rights and failure to do so=people have right to overthrow

What were the main ideas of John Locke?

fought for freedom of speech and religion

What were the main ideas of Voltaire?

gov. should have separation of powers

What were the main ideas of Montesquieu?

gov. corrupted people's natural goodness; only good gov=formed by people and guided by will of society

What were the main ideas of Rousseau?

speedy trial; laws for order (not revenge!); against cruel punishment; degree of punishment depends on crime

What were the main ideas of Beccaria?

women need edu. to become useful (doctors, politics, edu=better moms)

What were the main ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft?

French "philosopher"; wrote on reason, nature, happiness, progress, liberty

What was a "Philosophe"?


How ideas of Enlightenment circulated

light/dark contrast; sensual

Baroque art and literature during the Enlightenment


Characteristics of the Enlightened Despots

Colonists upset with: navigation acts, stamp acts, boston tea party, british occupy of Boston; colonists feel less identity with Britain than with colony

What events lead up to the American Revolution?

gave weak national gov

What were the reasons in revising the Articles of Confederation?

New constitution ratified: federal system of gov; bill of rights

What were the results of the 1787 Constitutional Convention?


After Oliver Cromwell died, Charles II became king and restored the monarchy. What period is this known as?

Maria Theresa

Who was the famous queen of Austria during the 17th century?

Declaration of religious tolerance (Huguenots could live, work, and worship in France)

What was the Edict of Nantes?

Louis XIV

Who cancelled the Edict of Nantes?

ended war between France and Spanish Netherlands (France gained region and several towns)

What was the Treaty of Nijmegen?

Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV's grandson)

In the war of Spanish Succession, who gained the throne of Spain?

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