Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) appealed to the governor of Louisiana for help recruiting free blacks to defend New Orleans in 1814. He crushed the southwest Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. His force consisted of seven thousand sailors, regulars, pirates, and Frenchmen, as well as militiamen from Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. He became a national hero as poets and politicians lined up to sing the praises of the defenders of New Orleans. Florida as a refuge, Jackson secured a commission to enter Spanish territory, punish the Indians, and recapture the runaways. But he was to respect all posts under the Spanish flag. During the Treaty of 1818 with Britain
Jackson invades Florida.