APUSH Unit 3: Chapter 12
Terms in this set (38)
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) appealed to the governor of Louisiana for help recruiting free blacks to defend New Orleans in 1814. He crushed the southwest Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. His force consisted of seven thousand sailors, regulars, pirates, and Frenchmen, as well as militiamen from Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. He became a national hero as poets and politicians lined up to sing the praises of the defenders of New Orleans. Florida as a refuge, Jackson secured a commission to enter Spanish territory, punish the Indians, and recapture the runaways. But he was to respect all posts under the Spanish flag. During the Treaty of 1818 with Britain
Jackson invades Florida.
Nationalism was further highlighted by a plan of Henry Clay for developing a profitable home market. Still radiating the nationalism of war-hawk days, he developed the 1824 as the American System. It had three main parts a strong banking system, easily providing an abundant credit, a protective tariff where eastern manufacturing would flourish. Revenues from the tariff would fund for the third component of the American system—a network of roads and canals, especially in the Ohio Valley. Through these new arteries of transportation would flow foodstuffs and raw materials from the South and West to the North and East.
A new nation, moreover, was welded in the fiery furnace of armed conflict. Sectionalism, now identified with discredited New England Federalists, was dealt a black eye (sectional disunity). Sectionalism was crystallizing, and the conflict over slavery was beginning to raise its hideous head.
Macon's Bill No 2
Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper attained
international recognition in the 1820s, significantly as the nation's first writers of importance to use American scenes and themes. School textbooks, often British in an earlier era, were now being written by Americans for Americans
The Hartford resolutions, as it turned out, were the death dirge of the Federalist party. In 1816 the Federalists nominated their last presidential candidate. He was handily trounced by James Monroe, yet another Virginian. He was nominated for the presidency in 1816 by the Republicans. He was an experienced, levelheaded executive,with an ear-to-the-ground talent for interpreting popular rumblings. The Monroe administration negotiated the much-underrated Treaty of 1818 with Britain.
James Fenimore Cooper
Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper attained international recognition in the 1820s, significantly as the nation's first writers of importance to use American scenes and themes.
One group of his decisions perhaps the most famous bolstered the power of the federal government at the expense of the states. A notable case in this category was McCulloch v. Maryland (1819). Marshall's ruling in this case gave the doctrine of "loose construction" its most famous formulation. John Marshall was a Molding Father of the Constitution. Marshall's decisions are felt even today. In this sense his nationalism was the most tenaciously enduring of the era. He buttressed the federal Union and helped to create a stable, nationally uniform environment for business.
Similarly, the American frigates, notably the Constitution ("Old Ironsides"), had thicker sides, heavier firepower, and larger crews, of which one sailor in six was a free black. When the Constitution was adopted in 1788, the North and South were running neck and neck in wealth and population. The North was becoming wealthier and also more thickly settled—an advantage reflected in an increasing northern majority in the House of Representatives. Yet in the Senate, each state had two votes, regardless of size.
John C. Calhoun
1817 Madison vetoes Calhoun's Bonus Bill Rush-Bagot agreement limits naval armament on Great Lakes
Dartmouth appealed the case, employing as counsel its most distinguished alumnus, Daniel Webster ('01). The "Godlike Daniel'' reportedly pulled out all the stops of his tear-inducing eloquence when he declaimed, "It is, sir, as I have said, a small college. And yet there are those who love it.'' Daniel Webster was an Expounding Father. Webster's classic speeches in the Senate, challenging states' rights and nullification, were largely repetitious of the arguments that he had earlier presented before a sympathetic Supreme Court.
Fletcher v Peck
The notorious case of Fletcher v. Peck (1810) arose when a Georgia legislature, swayed by bribery, granted 35 million acres in the Yazoo River country, Mississippi to private speculators. The next legislature, yielding to an angry public outcry, canceled the crooked transaction
John Quincy Adams
The bickering group to Belgian city of Ghent in 1814. was headed by early-rising, puritanical John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams, who deplored the late-hour card playing of his high living colleague Henry Clay.a statesman of the first rank, the ingrown Federalist sectionalism of his native New England and proved to be one of the great secretaries of state. An ardent patriot and nationalist,the flinty New Englander took the offensive and demanded huge concessions from Spain. 1823 Secretary Adams proposes Monroe Doctrine.
Era of Goodfeelings
A phrase commonly used to describe the administrations of Monroe and because the 2 political parties were getting along. The Monroe administration negotiated the much-underrated Treaty of 1818 with
Treaty of Ghent
Signed on Dec 24,1814 in Ghent Belgium, it was an armistice; John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay went to Ghent for signing and both sides: the British and the Americans stopped fighting and the conquered territory was restored to Canada; It also ended the war of 1812.
States: Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island met in 1814 at Hartford, Connecticut, secretly meeting due to the disgusts of the war and to redress their grievances.
Accordingly, in August 1823, George Canning, the haughty British foreign secretary, approached the American minister in London with a startling proposition. Would not the United States combine with Britain in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory, and specifically warning the European despots to keep their harsh hands off the Latin American republics? (seducing)
A line. 1820 Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise lasted thirty-four years—a vital formative period in the life of the young Republic—and during that time it preserved the shaky compact of the states. Yet the embittered dispute over slavery heralded the future breakup of the Union. Ever after, the morality of the South's "peculiar institution'' was an issue that could not be swept under the rug. The Missouri Compromise only ducked the question—it did not resolve it.
Marshall & Monroe would inspire activities ranging from protecting manufacturing to building roads to defending the authority of the federal government over the states. The Battle of New Orleans restored that honor, at least in American eyes, & unleashed a wave of nationalism & self-confidence. The most impressive outcome of the War of 1812 was heightened nationalism or national oneness. America may not have fought the war as one nation, but it emerged as one nation. Nationalism likewise manifested itself in manufacturing (factories).
2nd Bank of the United States
Congress 1816 Second Bank of the United States founded. A fresh nationalistic spirit could be recognized
in many other areas as well. The rising tide of
nation-consciousness even touched finance. A
revived Bank of the United States was voted by Congress in 1816. The army was expanded to ten thousand men.
Bonus Bill of 1817
1817 Madison vetoes Calhoun's Bonus Bill. Attempts to secure federal funding for roads and canals stumbled on Republican constitutional scruples. Congress voted in 1817 to distribute $1.5 million to the states for internal improvements. But President Madison sternly vetoed this handout measure as unconstitutional.
McCulloch v Maryland
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), a suit involved an attempt by the state of Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on its notes. John Marshall, speaking for the Court, declared the bank constitutional by invoking the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers (see p. 195). At the same time, he strengthened federal authority and slapped at state infringements when he denied the right of Maryland to tax the bank.
Tariff of 1816
Tariff of 1816—the first tariff in American history
instituted primarily for protection, not revenue. Its
rates—roughly 20 to 25 percent on the value of dutiable imports—were not high enough to provide completely adequate safeguards, but the law was a bold beginning. A strongly protective trend was started that stimulated the appetites of the protected for more protection.
Cohens v Virginia
(1821) the case of Cohens v. Virginia gave Marshall one of his greatest opportunities to defend the federal power. The Cohens, found guilty by the Virginia courts of illegally selling lottery tickets, appealed to the highest tribunal. Virginia "won," in the sense that the conviction of the Cohens was upheld.
The Monroe Doctrine was born late in 1823,
when the nationalistic Adams won the nationalistic
Monroe over to his way of thinking. The president,
in his regular annual message to Congress on
December 2, 1823, incorporated a stern warning to
the European powers. Its two basic features were
(1) noncolonization and (2) nonintervention.
land act of 1820
The West, despite the inflow of settlers, was still weak in population and influence. Not potent enough politically to make its voice heard, it was forced to ally itself with other sections. Thus strengthened, it demanded cheap acreage and partially achieved its goal in the Land Act of 1820, which authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin
acres at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash.
"Virginia Dynasty"—by 1814 a Virginian
had been president for all but four years in the
Republic's quarter-century of life.
Dartmouth College v Woodward (1819)
The college had been granted a charter by King George III in 1769, but the democratic New Hampshire state
legislature had seen fit to change it. Dartmouth
appealed the case, employing as counsel its most
distinguished alumnus, Daniel Webster ('01). The "Godlike Daniel'' reportedly pulled out all the stops of his tear-inducing eloquence when he declaimed, "It is, sir, as I have said, a small college. And yet there are those who love it.''
While giving voice to a spirit of patriotism, it simultaneously deepened the illusion of isolationism. Many Americans falsely concluded, that the Republic was in fact insulated from European dangers simply because it wanted to be and because, in a nationalistic outburst, Monroe had publicly warned the Old World powers to stay away
Florida Purchase Treaty
In the mislabeled Florida Purchase Treaty of
1819, Spain ceded Florida, as well as shadowy Spanish
claims to Oregon, in exchange for America's
abandonment of equally murky claims to Texas,
soon to become part of independent Mexico.
The Monroe Doctrine was born late in 1823,
when the nationalistic Adams won the nationalistic
Monroe over to his way of thinking.
Southerners saw in the Tallmadge amendment,
which they eventually managed to defeat in the
Senate, an ominous threat to sectional balance.
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