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116 terms

Med Term- Chapter 7

Urinary System
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Acetone
Ketone body produced in abnormal amounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, when there is excessive fat breakdown in cells.
Albuminuria
Protein in the urine.
Antidiuretic hormone
Pituitary gland hormone that normally stimulates the kidney to decrease production of urine, preventing excess loss of water. Also called vasopressin.
Anuria
Suppression of urine formation by the kidney.
Arteriole
Small artery.
Azotemia
Excess of nitrogenous waste products in the blood; uremia.
Bacteriuria
Bacteria in the urine.
Caliceal
Pertaining to a calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney).
Caliectasis
Dilation or widening of a calyx. This occurs when urine is backed up in the kidney as in hydronephrosis.
Calyx; calyces
Cup-shaped collecting region in the renal pelvis (central section of the kidney).
Catheter
Tube for injecting or removing fluids.
Cortex
Outer region of an organ; renal ______ is the outer region of the kidney.
Cortical
Pertaining to the cortex (outer region of an organ).
Creatinine
Nitrogen-containing waste product of muscle metabolism; excreted by the kidney in urine.
Creatinine clearance test
Measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
Cystectomy
Excision (removal) of the urinary bladder.
Cystitis
Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Cystoscopy
Visual (endoscopic) examination of the urinary bladder.
Cystostomy
New opening of the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
Diabetes insipidus
Abnormal condition of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland. Patients experience polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst).
Diabetes mellitus
Abnormal condition of no insulin or inadequate insulin secretion from the pancreas. This leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and glycosuria (sugar in the urine).
Diuresis
Increased excretion of urine by the kidneys. A diuretic is an agent that increases _______, such as tea, coffee or water.
Dysuria
Painful urination.
Edema
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces.
Electrolyte
Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Examples are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-).
Enuresis
Bedwetting; literally, "in urine."
Erythropoietin
Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow.
Essential hypertension
High blood pressure due to no apparent cause.
Filtration
Process by which some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other type of material.
Glomerular capsule
Collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus; also known as Bowman capsule.
Glomerulonephritis
Inflammation of glomeruli in the kidney.
Glomerulus; glomeruli
Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the cortex of the kidney. As blood flows through each glomerulus, waste materials and other substances are filtered from the bloodstream.
Glycosuria
Sugar in the urine.
Hematuria
Blood in the urine.
Hemodialysis
Removal of waste materials (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) from the blood in patients whose kidneys have stopped functioning. Blood leaves the body and circulates through a machine that removes wastes before sending the blood back into the body through a vein.
Hilum
Depression or hollow in the surface of an organ, such as the kidney and lung. It is the area where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the organ.
Hydronephrosis
Abnormal condition of excess backup of fluid (urine) in the kidney.
hyperkalemia
High levels of potassium in the blood.
hyponatremia
Low levels of sodium in the blood.
Interstitial nephritis
Inflammation of the tissue in the kidney that lies between the nephrons (functional units).
Intravesical
Pertaining to within the bladder
Ketonuria
Presence of ketones in the urine. Common in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, but can occur in anytime the body begins to break down fatty tissue to provide energy as in starvation.
Ketosis
Accumulation of large quantities of ketone bodies (acetones) in the blood; ketoacidosis.
Kidney
One of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.
Lithotripsy
Process of using high-energy sound waves to crush a stone within the kidney or ureter.
Meatal stenosis
Narrowing of the meatus (opening) leading from the urethra to the outside of the body.
Meatus
An opening or passageway. The urinary _______ is the opening of the urethra to the outside of the body and the auditory meatus is the opening of the ear to the outside of the body.
Medulla
Inner region of an organ.
Medullary
Pertaining to the medulla or an organ.
Nephrolithiasis
Abnormal condition of kidney stones.
Nephrolithotomy
Incision of the kidney to remove a stone.
Nephron
Functional unit of the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus, renal tubule, and collecting tubule.
Nephropathy
Disease or abnormality of the kidney.
Nephroptosis
Prolapse of a kidney; floating or wandering kidney.
Nephrostomy
Opening of the kidney to the outside of the body.
Nephrotic syndrome
Group of symptoms that occur due to loss of protein in the urine. Symptoms include edema (swelling of tissues), hypoalbuminemia (loss of protein from the blood), heavy proteinuria, and infection. This condition is also known as nephrosis.
Nitrogenous waste
Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine: examples are urea, creatinine and uric acid.
Nocturia
Urinary frequency at night.
Oliguria
Scanty urination.
Parenchyma
an organ's essential and distinctive tissue.
Paranephric
Pertaining to beside or near a kidney.
Peritoneal dialysis
Separation of nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream by introducing fluid into the peritoneal cavity. Wastes then leave the bloodstream and enter the fluid, which is drained through an abdominal catheter.
Phenylketonuria
Excess of phenylketones in the urine; diagnosed by a PKU test at birth.
Polycystic kidney disease
Kidneys are filled with cysts that prevent normal kidney function.
Polydipsia
Excessive thirst.
Polyuria
Excessive urination.
Potassium
Chemical element that forms salts with other minerals such as calcium and is vital for bodily processes. When dissolved in water, it is an electrolyte whose balance is regulated by the kidney.
Pyelolithotomy
Incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis of the kidney.
Pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney; caused by bacterial infection.
Pyuria
Pus in the urine; sign of urinary tract infection (UTI).
Reabsorption
Process in the kidney by which the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
Renal angiography
X-ray record of blood vessels of the kidney after injecting contrast material.
Renal angioplasty
Surgical repair of blood vessels in the kidney. Narrowed areas of renal arteries are dilated using an inflatable balloon attached to a catheter.
Renal artery
Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.
Renal calculi
Kidney stones.
Renal cell carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the kidney in an adult.
Renal colic
Severe pain resulting from stones (calculi) in a ureter or in the kidney (renal pelvis).
Renal failure
Failure of the kidneys to produce and excrete urine.
Renal hypertension
High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
Renal ischemia
Condition in which blood is held back from the kidney, often by blockage of renal arteries and arterioles.
Renal pelvis
Central collecting chamber of the kidney.
Renal transplantation
Surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient.
Renal tubule
Microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
Renal vein
Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and back toward the heart.
Renin
A substance (enzyme) synthesized, stored and secreted by the kidney to raise blood pressure. It causes narrowing (constriction) of blood vessels.
Retrograde pyelogram
X-ray record of the kidney, ureters, and urinary bladder after injection of contrast material through a urinary catheter into the ureters.
Secondary hypertension
High blood pressure caused by kidney disease or by other disorders.
Sodium
Chemical element necessary for cellular functioning. As an electrolyte, its blood and urine levels are regulated by the kidney.
Stricture
Narrowing of a tubular structure in the body.
Trigone
Triangular area in the urinary bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits.
Trigonitis
Inflammation of the trigone of the urinary bladder.
Urea
Major nitrogenous waste material in urine.
Uremia
Excessive amount of urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood.
Ureter
Tube leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder.
Ureteroileostomy
New opening of the ureters to an isolated portion of the ileum that has been removed from its normal location and connected to the outside of the body. It serves as a passageway for urine to leave the body when the urinary bladder is not functioning.
Ureteroneocystostomy
Surgical transplantation of a ureter to a new site in the urinary bladder. This occurs with a kidney transplant.
Urethra
Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
Urethral stricture
Narrowing of the urethra.
Urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra.
Urethroplasty
Surgical repair of the urethra.
Uric acid
Nitrogenous waste formed when proteins are used in cells. It is excreted by the kidneys in urine.
Urinalysis
Series of tests to evaluate the composition of urine. It includes tests to determine color, appearance, sugar, bacteria, and protein in blood.
Urinary bladder
Hollow container with muscular walls that holds and stores urine until it is discharged from the body. Urinary catheterization is passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine.
Urinary catheterization
Passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine.
Urinary incontinence
Involuntary passage of urine.
Urinary retention
Inability to pass urine, which is held back in the urinary bladder. Urination is the process of expelling urine; micturition; voiding.
Urination
Process of expelling urine.
Vesicoureteral reflux
Backflow of urine from the urinary bladder to the ureters.
Voiding
Urination.
Voiding cystourethrogram
X-ray record of the urinary bladder and urethra taken while a patient is urinating and after contrast material is injected retrograde through the urethra.
Wilms tumor
Malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in childhood.
Specific gravity
the amounts of wastes, minerals and solids in the urine
Sediment and casts
presence of abnormal particles in the urine (i.e. bacteria, crystals, cells...)
Bladder cancer
Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
measurement of urea levels in blood
creatinine clearance
measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney