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APUSH CHAPTER 7 Vocabulary and People
Terms in this set (30)
-He was Vice President, Hamilton's greatest political rival. He was a politician without prospects in his own party. Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason. When Burr lost the New York election, he blamed his defeat of Hamilton's malevolence. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded and died.
-Burr became a political outcast who had to flee New York to avoid and indictment for murder. He led a group of armed followers down the Ohio River in a boat in 1806. Jefferson ordered Burr and his men arrested as traitors. The Burr "conspiracy" was a symbol of the larger perils still facing the new nation.
-One of the prerequisites for industrialization is an efficient system for transporting raw material to factories and finished goods to markets. The U.S. did not have this system in the early years of the republic.
-One way to solve this problem was to look for customers overseas. Among the first acts of the new Congress were two tariff bills giving preference to American ships in American ports, helping to stimulate an expansion of domestic shipping. More important was the outbreak of war in Europe, allowing Yankee merchant vessels to take over most of the carrying trade between Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
-popular among some evangelical Christians in America as early as 1800.
-By the 1820s, there were approximately 1000 meetings a year, most of them in the South and West. The estimated attendance at some of the larger meetings was as large as 25000 people. Today, there are many "megachurches" throughout the United States.
-By 1800, the revivalist energies of all these denominations were combining to create the greatest surge of evangelical fervor since the first Great Awakening. Presbyterians= the new awakening soon spread rapidly throughout the country
-At Cane Ridge, Kentucky, a group of evangelical ministers presided over the nation's first "camp meeting"-a revival that lasted several days and impressed all who saw it with its size and its fervor.
-form of religions or beliefs originated among Enlightenment philosophers in France. Deists accepted the existence of God, but considered God a remote being who, after having created the universe, had withdrawn from direct involvement with the human race and its sin.
-This "rational" theology reflected modern, scientific attitudes and de-emphasized the role of God in the world. Religious skepticism also produced the philosophies of universalism and Unitarianism, which emerged at first as dissenting views within New England Congregational Church. Some Americans believed that the spread of rationalism marked the end of traditional, evangelistic religion in the new nation.
-Revolutionized both cotton production and weapons manufacturing. England had created an enormous demand for cotton, a demand that planters in the American South were finding impossible to meet. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented a machine that performed the arduous task quickly and efficiently.
-the cotton gin=cotton growing spread into the upland South and beyond, and within a decade total crop production increased eightfold. African American slavery, which with the decline of tobacco production some had considered a dwindling institution regained its importance, expanded, and became more firmly fixed upon the South. Whitney also made a major contribution to the development of modern warfare and in the process made a contribution to other industrial techniques.
-Congress enacted a drastic measure known as "the Embargo." To prevent war brink insidents. It became one of the most controversial political issues of its time.
-The Embargo prohibited American ships from leaving the US for any foreign port anywhere in the world. The law was widely evaded, but it was effective enough to create a serious depression through most of the nation. A few days before leaving office, jefferson approved a bill ending his experiment with what he called "peacable coercion."
-the most important revivalism came from the efforts of this great prophet=a Seneca whose seemingly miraculous "rebirth" after years of alcoholism helped give him a special position within his tribe.
-called for a revival of traditional Indian ways. His message spread through the scattered Iroquois communities and inspired many Indians to give up whiskey, gambling, and other destructive customs derived from white society. the revival did not lead to a true restoration of traditional Iroquois culture because Handsome Lake encouraged Christian missionaries to become active within the tribes, and he urged Iroquois men to abandon their roles as hunters and become sedentary farmers. Iroquois women, who had traditionally done the farming, were to move into more-domestic roles. When some women resisted the change, Handsome Lake denounced them as witches. He demanded confessions from them and killed some of those who refused.
-On December 15, 1814, delegates from the New England states met in Hartford, Connecticut, to discuss their grievances. it reasserted the right of nullification and proposed seven amendments to the Constitution- amendments designed to protect New England from the growing influence of the south and the West.
-the war was going badly and the government was becoming desperate, the New Englanders assumed that the Republicans would have to agree to their demands. Jackson's smashing victory at New Orleans reached the cities of the NEw England. Reports arrived from abroad of a negotiated peace. the Hartford Convention and the Federalists came to seem futile, irrelevant, even treasonable. The failure of the secession effort was a virtual death blow to the Federalist Party.
-Few people volunteered to take part in the British navy. Most had to be impressed = forced into the service. they often deserted. By 1807, many of these deserters had joined the American merchant marine of American navy. the British claimed the right to stop and search American merchant ships and re-impress deserters. They did not claim the right to take native-born Americans, but they did claim the right to seize naturalized Americans born on British soil.
-In the summer of 1807, the British went to more provocative extremes in an incident involving a vessel of the American navy. When the American commander, James Barron, refused to allow the British to search the Chesapeake, the Leopard, opened fire. Barron had no choice but to surrender, and a boarding party from the Leopard dragged four men of the American frigate. Jefferson expelled all British warships from American waters to lessen the likelihood of future incident. Then he sent instructions to his minister in England, James Monroe, to demand that the British government renounce impressment. But the British refused to renounce impressment.
-Americans imported some technological advances from England. The British government attempted to protect the nation's manufacturing preeminence by preventing the export of textile machinery or the emigration of skilled mechanics. Despite the efforts, immigrants arrived in the United States with advanced knowledge of English technology they were eager to introduce the new machines to America.
- Not until at least the 1840s did the nations begin to develop a true manufacturing economy. But the inventions of this period were crucial in making the eventual transformation possible. Oliver Evans devised an automated flour mill, a card-making machine, and others. Eli Whitney created the cotton gin and produced muskets.
-chief justice of the U.S. He was A leading Federalist and prominent Virginia lawyer, he had served John Adams as secretary of state. He established himself as the dominant figure on the Court. He shaped all its most important rulings-including, Marbury v. Madison.
-Through a succession of Republican administrations, he established the judiciary as a branch of government coequal with the executive and the legislature-a position that the founders of the republic had never clearly indicated it should occupy.
-Having won control of the executive and legislative branches of government, the Republicans looked with suspicion on the judiciary, which remained largely in the hands of Federalist judges. Federalists had long maintained that the Supreme Court had the authority to nullify acts of Congress, and the Court itself had actually exercised the power of judicial review in 1996 when it upheld the validity of a law passed by the legislature.
-Court's authority in this area would not be secure until it actually declared a congressional act unconstitutional.
Judith Sargent Murray
-Most white men assumed that female education should serve only to make women better wives and mothers. They thought Women had no need for advanced or professional training; there was no reason for colleges and universities to make space for female students.
-Some women aspired to more. In 1784, Judith Sargent Murray published an essay defending women's rights to education=Men and women were equal in intellect and potential. Women should have precisely the same education opportunities as men. they should have opportunities to earn their own living, to establish a role for themselves in society apart from their husbands and families. Murray's ideas became an inspiration to later generations of women, but during most of her own lifetime, they attracted little support.
-Fearful that Napoleon Bonaparte might withdraw the offer for the purchase of the entire Louisiana Territory, they decided to proceed without further instructions from home. The agreement was signed on April 30, 1803, by Livingston and Monroe. By the terms of the treaty, the U.S. was to pay a total of $15 million to the French government. The U.S. was also to grant certain exclusive commercial privileges to France in the port of New Orleans and was to incorporate the residents of Louisiana into the Union with the same rights and privileges as other citizens.
-The government organized the Louisiana Territory much as it had organized the Northwest Territory, with the assumption that its various territories would eventually become states. The first of these was admitted to the Union as the state of Louisiana in 1812.
Marbury vs. Madison
-William Marbury had been named a justice of the peace in the District of Columbia. But his commission had not been delivered to him before Adams left office. Once Jefferson became president, the new secretary of state, James Madison was responsible for transmitting appointments. He had refused to hand over the commission to Marbury. Marbury appealed to the Supreme Court for an order directing Madison to perform his official duty.
-In its historic ruling, the Court found that Marbury had a right to his commission but that the Court had no authority to order Madison to deliver it. On the surface, the decision was a victory for the administration. But of much greater importance than the relatively insignificant matter of Marbury's commission was the Court's reasoning in the decision.
Mercy Otis Warren
-A female influential playwright and agitator during the 1770s.
-She continued her literary efforts with a 3volume book....History of the Revolution, published in 1805 and emphasized the heroism of the American struggle.
-In the 1760s, the Delaware prophet Neolin had sparked a widespread revival in the Old NOrth west with a message combining Christian and Indian imagery and bringing to Native American religion a vision of a personal God, intimately involved in the affairs of man. Neolin had also called for Indians to rise up in defense of their land and had denounced the growth of trade and other relationships with white civilization. The spirit of revivalism was also particularly strong in these years among Native Americans, although very different from revivalism in white or black society. It drew heavily from earlier tribal experiences.
-His vehement statements had helped stimulate the Indian military efforts of 1763 and beyond.
New Light Dissenters
- people who had altered their religious views to make them more compatible with the world of scientific rationalism.
-The origins of the Second Great Awakening lay in the efforts of conservative theologians of the 1790s to fight the spread of religious rationalism, and to encourage church establishments to revitalize their organizations. Conservatives in the church denounced New Light Dissenters.
-Argued that American students should be educated as patriots. their minds should be filled with nationalistic, American thoughts. To encourage a distinctive American culture and help unify the new nation, Webster insisted on a simplified and Americanized system of spelling. His American Spelling Book, first published in 1783 and commonly known as the "blue-backed speller," eventually sold over 100 million copies, to become the best-selling book in the history of American publishing. his school dictionary, issued in 1806, was republished in many editions and was eventually enlarged to become An American Dictionary of the English Language.
-His speller and his dictionary established a national standard of words and usages.
-He was the inventor responsible for perfecting the steamboat and bringing it to the attention of the nation, along with the promoter Robert R. Livingston. Their Clermont, equipped with paddle wheels and an English-built engine, sailed up the Hudson, demonstrating the practicability of steam navigation. He introduced the steamboat to the West by sending the New Orleans from Pittsburgh down the Ohio and Mississippi.
-The next year, this vessel began a profitable career of service between New Orleans and Natchez.
-One of the eager mechanics that sailed to the United States to advance their technology and introduce new machinery.
-used the knowledge he had acquired before leaving England to build a spinning mill for the Quaker merchant Moses Brown in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1790. It was the first modern factory in America.
Second Great Awakening
-The conservative theologians of the 1790s = fight the spread of religious rationalism and to encourage church establishments to revitalize their organizations. By 1800, the revivalist energies of all the denominations were combining to create the greatest surge of evangelical fervor since the first Great Awakening. The message of the Second Great Awakening was not entirely consistent, but its basic thrust was clear: individuals must readmit God and Christ into their daily lives, must embrace a fervent, active piety, and must reject the skeptical rationalism that threatened traditional beliefs. The Awakening combined a more active piety with a belief in God as an active force in the world which grace could be attained through faith and good works.
-The Second Great Awakening accelerated the growth of different sects and denominations. It helped create a broad popular acceptance of the idea that men and women could belong to different Protestant churches and still be committed to essentially the same Christian faith. Finally, the new evangelicalism provided a vehicle for establishing a sense of order and social stability communities
-the chief of the Shawnees called by his tribe "the shooting star". He was more militant than his brother. He warned of his tribe's extermination if they did not take action and acted as the Pequot did. He called them to take action against the whites who were moving into Native American land.
-Tecumseh understood that only through United action could the tribes hope to resist the advance of white civilization. Few other leaders understood this and therefore mount tribes died out or fell under the control of the white invaderss
-remarkable black leader who was aided the african slaves of santo Domingo to create a republic after they had revolted.
The Adams administration had joined with the British in recognizing and supporting the rebel regime of Toussaint L'Ouverture in santo Domingo. -Jefferson ensured the French minister in Washington that the American people, especially those of the slave holding estates, did not approve of the black revolutionary , who they thought was setting a bad example for their own slaves.
-representatives from both parties who were eager for war became known as "war Hawks". Some became ardent nationalists fired by passion for territorial expansion among them two men who would play a great role in national politics for much of the next four decades: Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.
-Others were men impassioned in their defense of republican values. Together, they formed a powerful coalition in favor of war. Clay became Speaker of the House in 1811 and he filled committees with those shared his eagerness.
War of 1812
-Napoleon launched a catastrophic campaign again Russia that left his army in disarray a his power in Europe dismissed. By late 1813, with the French Empire on its way to final defeat, British was able to turn its military attention to America.
Americans entered the war with enthusiasm, but events on the battlefield soon cooled their ardor. In the summer in 1812, American forces invaded Canada through Detroit. They retreated in August surrendered the fort there. Other invasion efforts also failed. Things went only slightly better for the Americans at seas. American privateers destroyed or captured many British merchant ships occasionally braving the cold still waters of the British Isles themselves and burning vessels.
-Americans achieved military success on the Great Lakes. American commander in the west pushed of the Thames River in upper Canada on October 5, 1813 and one of victory notable for the death of Tecumseh. Andrew Jackson a wealthy Tennessee planter and a general in the millage state temporarily abandon plans for invasion of Florida and set off to pursue them in 1814 the battle of horseshoe Bend jesses men took terrible revenge on the Indians and slaughtered them.
-Washington State who won wide a claim for his satirical histories of early American life and his power of fables of society in the world. His popular folktales recounting the adventures of Americans made him a widely acknowledge leader of American literary life in his era and one of the few writers of the time who's works could continue to be read by later generations
-He was known for being an American author, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. His works were successful and still read later on.
William Henry Harrison
-he was the American commander in the west who pushed up the river into Canada on October 5 18/13 he won a victory most notable for the death of Tecumseh who was serving in the British army as a brigadier. This battle weakened and dishearten the native Americans and greatly diminished their ability to defend their claims to the region
-This invasion was made possible because the American forces took control of Lake Eire, mainly through the work of young Oliver Hazard Perry, who engaged and dispersed a British ship in Put in Bay on September 10, 1813.
The Prophet (Tenskwatawa)
-charismatic religious leader and orator. He had experienced a mystical awakening in the process of recovering from alcoholism. he began to speak to his people of the superior virtues of Indian civilization and the sinfulness and corruption of the white world.
-he inspired a religious revival that spread through numerous tribes and helped create unity. He advocated an Indian society entirely separate from that of white Americans and a culture rooted in tribal tradition.
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